Friday, April 5, 2019
Research Review on Accuracy of Memory
Research study on Accuracy of MemoryMeghan Amber-Rose TurnbullExplain and evaluate what research has taught us about why our memories be not always accurate.Memoryp1 is a mechanism whereby the brain stores and retrieves nurture to be used in normal life. Psychologists have come to understand the existence of retrospection, as we do not continuously re-learn training any time it is of need. This is what lead psychologists to develop three key processes in retentiveness. These argon encoding, storage and retrieval. convert processes take in information from the outside world using the senses. Each piece of information is give a unique code to modify it to be entered into the remembering board system. Storage processes use this coded information to enable the storehouse system to retain information. This coded information is stored as internal representations which come in castrateing forms such(prenominal) as words, faces, sounds etc. Retrieval processes enable access to the stored information and come in two forms, credit rating and riposte. Recognition matches coded information which is stored to what is be perceived in the outside world whereas recall (brings information that is stored to your attention.) involves curious memory stores. Recall is what helps you to remember where you last placed an object such as your wallet. These three memory processes work together, therefore, how well and how much information is encoded and then settle downs how much is stored and retrieved (Brace, 2007, pp113-114). This essay will now rationalize and evaluate what research has taught us about why our memories ar not always accurate.One practicable reason for memory inaccuracy is the presence of neuropsychological injury or accidental brain damage. Localization of lean is a theoretical method that counts factoricular areas of the brain play a key role in functions such as memory. When studying this, psychologists use brain s endning technology such as positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Patients are asked to complete certain intellectual tasks during a s offer. The s masss can then pick up brain activity and pin point which part of the brain is not functioning correctly. This can enable psychologists to understand why or how their memory may not be accurate and help in patients recovery. Unfortunately for more or less, the damage may be too severe and incurable. This can be seen in patients suffering from Alzheimers and dementia. (Brace and Roth, 2007, pp144-145p2)Research conducted by (Martin) Conway and colleagues looked at how well students retained information, over a 12 year period, after completing a cognitive psychology course. The prove tested for general overall knowledge of what was studied and they found that name were forgotten rather than principals and statistics. This is possibly due to less information being coded to a name than that of principals and statistics when information was originally taken inp3. This could be seen as a limitation as important information can be forgotten due to a fault in one of the key processes (in this case at encoding). Their study in like manner found a significant strength as after 4 years the participants memories stabilized and what they were quench able to recite at this point would potentially bear in their memory for life, meaning the participants know the information rather than remember it. (Brace and Roth, 2007, pp118)Other researchers that focused on the accuracy of memory were Loftus and Palmer (1974). They looked at the effect that leading skepticisms can have on memory. They did this by conducting an experiment whereby participants were shown video clips of car accidents. Each participant was then asked a variation of the question about how spendthrift were the cars overtaking when they dart each other? with the verb hit being changed each time for a more violent verb such as smashed, collided and bumped. The participants estimates of speed were much higher when asked how fast a car was going when it smashed into the other car. It seems that the more violent verb convinced the participants that the cars in that clip were going faster when they were all the same speed. In a similar second experiment, one third were asked nearly how fast the cars were going when they smashed into each other?, one third were asked how fast they were going when they hit and a control group were not asked a question. After seven days all participants were then asked the question did you see any broken glass? Out of the participants that had been asked the more violent leading question using the word smashed, 32 per cent admitted to seeing broken glass, even though there had been no broken glass shown on the video clip. An advantage of the research conducted by Loftus and Palmer (1974), is that it gained a commode of knowledge into the misinformation effect. This means info rmation that is given to a person after an event takes place can actually override (or merge with) the memory that they originally have due to the memory not being encoded properlyp4. Yet, this can also be seen as a disadvantage as If memory can be influenced this easily using only leading questions, it could be used to effect witness testimonies and people can be made to remember events that they did not actually witness. (Brace, 2007, pp133-134)There is also much to be verbalize about the accuracy of autobiographical memories, which are episodes that an individual can remember from their life. This includes past experiences and biographical information. From this, brownness and Kulik (1977) devised the split second memory. Flashbulb memories are formed when certain conditions, such as move and emotionally arousing events, are met and create detailed and stable memories. chocolate-brown and Kulik (1977) used insider viewpoints in their research and found that memories of event s, such as the assassination of John F Kennedy and Martin Luther King, were highly detailed and much more accurate than other memories. A limitation to this area of research is that it depends solely on personal circumstance. What an individual passs, surprising, arousing and important will determine how well they will remember an event. For instance, the assassination of Martin Luther King registered a higher number of flashbulb memories with sable northeastern Americans than white North Americans. This means the accounts of white North Americans were less accurate (of the event) than the accounts of black North Americans. However, their research also showed a significant strength in memory recall as flashbulb memories store such a detailed and vivid account of what happened. When asked, participants could remember who they were with, where they were and exactly what they were doing when they learned of the surprising event. (Brace, 2007, pp140p5)Collective memories also play a part in how accurate recollections of past events can be. jean Piaget (1960) spoke of his own experience of collective memory. Piaget was able to describe in detail an instance when a man tried to kidnap him as a child. Subsequently, at the age of fifteen Paigets she-goat wrote to his family to admit that she had made the story up and the attempted kidnapping never took place. Fifty years on, Piaget could still remember the scratches the man had left on the face of his nanny during the supposed event. Paigets collective memory of the kidnapping is possibly due to family repeatedly discussing in detail what happened. Over a period of time, Piaget came to believe that he had witnessed this kidnapping and formed memories of what happened based on what others had told him. (An advantage of this is that) Piaget was able to recall this particular memory in so much detail after fifty years, showing that the information had been told was encoded and stored perfectly and therefore was a ble to be retrieved. This instance shows how memory is not always accurate, as Piaget describes his memory of the kidnapping as being witnessed first-hand. Essentially, his memory of the event was fabricated from information he had been told by family members. (Brace, 2007, pp143p6)Research has shown that there are many factors that can affect the accuracy of our memoryp7. However, these factors are dependent on individual and personal circumstance. The research of Conway (1991) stated that memory inaccuracies were due to a fault in one of the key processes. For instance, if there isnt enough information taken in and coded it makes it highly difficult for the information to be retrieved in any detail. Piaget (1960) and Loftus and Palmer (1974) both focused on the effect that other people can have on influencing the memory of an individual (. Meaning) illustrating that others can make you believe you have witnessed a situation just by talk of the town about it often enough or using leading questions and persuasive language . The research of Brown and Kulik (1977) concentrated more on personal circumstance. They found that how accurate a persons memory is of a situation depends on how interesting, surprising or emotionally stimulating they, as a person, find the event. What also must be taken into consideration is the possibility of brain damage and neuropsychological impairment this can affect the accuracy of memory as the part of the brain that is responsible for memory recall may be damaged in some way. To conclude, the research mentioned in this essay has given a vast pool of knowledge into why our memories are not always accurate.ReferencesBrace, N. and Roth, I. (2007) Memory structures, processes and skills In D. Miell, A. Phoenix, K. doubting Thomas (Eds.), Mapping Psychology, Chapter 8 (2nd ed, pp. 113145). Milton Keynes The Open University.Brown, R. and Kulik, J. (1977) Flashbulb memories, Cognition, vol.5, pp.73-99p8.Conway, M.A., Cohen, G.M. and St anhope, N. (1991) On the very long-term retention of knowledge acquired through with(predicate) formal education twelve years of cognitive psychology, Journal of experimental psychology General, vol.120, pp.395-409.Loftus, E.F. and Palmer, J.C. (1974) reconstructive memory of automobile destruction an example of the interaction between language and memory, Journal of Verbal larn and Verbal Behaviour, vol.13, pp.585-9.Piaget, J. (1960) Play, Dreams and Imitation in Childhood, New York, Nortonp1A good introduction in terms of explaining what is involved in memory and the issue, but you need to state precisely how you plan to organise the essay.p2Note that individuals may also vary in memory function due to brain differences.p3This is a good point names do not have a specific meaning nor do they relate to the person (except in some cultures) so are easily forgotten.p4In fact there is debate about the cause of the misinformation effect which could also be due to not attending at enco ding, due to fear or misattributing the source of information so it is thought to be real (as with Piagets story and Crombags study of memories of an air crash.).p5You aptitude have commented that some psychologists question how accurate flashbulb memories are.p6Like the memory of Loftus and Palmers participants their memory was reconstructed.p7This cobblers last is well focused on the evaluative part of the question and summarises your points well. You might also have considered methodological issues.p8Dont simply add references from the end of the chapter unless you have read them first hand. If you have read close to them in the course book you need only cite them in the main body of the essay.