Friday, May 31, 2019

Wedding Speech Delivered by the Bride :: Wedding Toasts Roasts Speeches

Wedding Speech Delivered by the BrideWe did it I cant believe were here already At first it felt like it couldnt take any longer and the last few weeks just flew Its overwhelming, Im in aweWow, Im Mrs. Hollingsworth I cant believe it Yeah, I can here my co-workers snickering in the back there, I can totally imagine the stories Ill be returning toFirst Id like to clear up any confusion Jim, is Jamie to me. Now thats pop of the way, Jamie and I have traveled a long road together already and Im looking forward to our continued journey as husband and wife.Jamie and I would like to thank our family and friends for coming tonight and being supportive to us at different stages of our lives. Wed also like to thank those who couldnt be with us in body and spirit like my papa who isnt forgotten and is loved and missed very much Wed also like to thank the people who we dont know very well for coming and wed like to take the opportunity tonight to get to know you better. Most of all wed like to thank our parents for teaching us the 10 important rules to a healthy marriagenever both be angry at the same time.Never Yell at each other unless the house on fire.If one of us HAS to grow an argument, let it be your mate.If you have to criticize, do it lovingly.Never bring up mistakes of the past.Neglect the whole world rather than each other.Never go to stop with an argument unsettled.At least once everyday try to say one nice thing to your mate.When you have done something wrong, be ready to film it and ask for forgiveness.It takes 2 to quarrel and the one in the wrong is the one who does the talking.I hope we can remember these rules and live by them. Not lone(prenominal) do we want to thank our parents for these rules they are only part of what theyve taught us. We also want to thank-you for building courage when we are scared, for strengthening our hearts when we are worn down and when we have self esteem we can conquer anything

Thursday, May 30, 2019

The Canyon - GMC’s Ultimate Compact Truck :: essays research papers

The Canyon - GMCs Ultimate Compact TruckThe Canyon is GMCs ultimate compact truck. The truck itself comes in three different types regular cab, crew cab, and king cab. One particular canyon, for example, is a regular cab pick-up. It can be any color the authority buyer desires. Dark red is the most common color, and a light gray interior usually comes included in the package. Its sleek design provides for stripped wind resistance, and there is a lot of space in the cab. It has a liner installed in the bed, decent rims, and standard hub- caps. There is a little the Nazarene fish that has been glued on to the tail- gate for decoration. The cab has a newly installed radio/CD player and the standard speakers are decent. The side mirrors are prominent and it really helps increase the drivers visibility, when driving. The tires, however, are sub-standard, but apart from that this truck is a grade A machine.Impressions and messages that masses get from objects tell them many things ab out what its there for, why is it like that, what are the owners tastes, and so on and so forth. This particular canyon (that one mentioned earlier) is a dark red color. This color exudes confidence, endurance, friendliness, and intelligence. The attitude, that the color impresses upon people is a lay back and take it easy attitude. There is a saying that goes along the lines of The covering reflects on what is within. This saying refers to a psyches possessions, and how they are kept, and that reflects upon what kind of person the owner really is. Same thing applies to the truck. The sporty design shows that the driver has some sense of style, and it also hints at the powerful engine under the hood. The standard rims and hub -caps show that the owner is comfortable with what they look like, and it also shows what kind of person he/she is. They are practical, and they think, why pine away money on rims? When they could be spending their money on more useful things.The flashy, styl ing cause of the truck gives off a charisma of coolness and intelligence. The front design just shows people how the designers put their imagination and skill to the test. It shows in their work that they have a lot of class and style. The overall design is so enticing that people who might see the truck and look for the logo to see who made it.

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

The role of the Catholic Church in Latin America :: essays research papers

The first Catholic priests came to South America with the conquistadors and through social and political force superimposed 16th century Catholicism upon conquered peoples and in subsequent generations upon slaves arriving in the New World. Catholicism has, likewise, frequently absorbed, rather than confronted, popular folk music phantasmal beliefs. The resulting religion is often overtly Catholic but covertly pagan. Behind the Catholic facade, the foundations and building structure reflect varying folk religious traditions. (2)This could be a result of so much territory with so little resources equals heresy and abuse. For most of Latin history, however, the number of priests has been insufficient to effectively see to all the people. Religious vacuums have thus been created, especially in rural areas and on the outskirts of urban areas. Anthony Gill, who describes the religious economy of Latin America, writes, The evangelization mission of the Catholic church building, to ch ecker all members of the population were inextricably bound to Catholicism, suffered due to the simple dynamics of restricted supply under a monopolized religious market (1). People, rather than change of location great distances to visit a priest, turned to various forms of folk Catholicism to solve everyday issues regarding sickness, financial gain or loss, and romance. The saying that Absolute spot corrupts absolutely seems to fit some accounts of the Catholic Church in Latin America. Far away from the authority and watchful eye of the Vatican, atrocities in the name of the Church had taken place. Though I believe it was not the norm but the exception.But with that said, some positive social changes have come about from the founding of Catholicism to Latin America. In its true form, the church has been a source of basic human rights for the people. The church would often oppose the governments dirty treatment of the people, who otherwise had no other representation. The churc h also formed a society to encourage cooperation with each other to develop a break-dance civilization. The church would also provide a foundation for education, health care, skills for building and farming. The Catholic Church has played such a major role in the shaping of Latin American culture, that it cannot be separated from it.

Mobile Phones :: Technology, Marketing

Mobile phones are reaching whole around the world and will dramatically change to express the new lifestyle of people (Friedrich et al 2009 Xinze, 2008). Such technology has made more than and more everybody be reachable (Marez et al. 2007). The brisk incursion and adoption are almost 100% in western countries and several Asian countries (Netsize, 2007 The Economist, 2005). This phenomenon is the ubiquitous revolutionary helped in the adoption and distribution of mobile handicraft since it allows marketing activities tailored to actual customer needs and tastes (Barutu, 2007), and more precisely targeting customers by using face-to- marketing communications person compared with impersonal and mass media (Carter, 2009. Shaw et al 2001). An incredible number of innovations introduced annually, and the rapid technological developments (Easingwood and Koustelos, 2000), is also changing the advertising philosophy (Barwise & Farley, 2005), leading businesses to accept mobile marketing strategy as a way to their advertising messages broke through the clutters (Zhang and Mao, 2008). Once students complete mobile marketing provides marketers with a real chance to get a high solution rate compared with traditional media (e.g. Wood and SONI, 1991). The justification for this is that people within the mobile telephone network marketing as customers, firms, advertising agencies, marketers and brands to interact with each former(a) in the more creative and fashionable way unlike before (Hanley and Becker, 2009). Recent statistics show that mobile marketing budgets, specifically and more than 11 zillion by 2011 mobile advertising rising from nearly 1 cardinal in 2007 (Leek and Christodoulides, 2009 OShea, 2007), since both expected to mobile subscribers will surpass 4 billion by 2011 (Higginbotham, 2009). Other research results show that about 22% of businesses using online advertising as a tool to promote the real efforts has to do mobile marketing (Ask, 2006). In the Middle East, especially in Jordan, there are four mobile service providers, and the number of subscribers more than 6 million, slightly more than the population numbers. In percentage terms, the mobile penetration in Jordan 101% compared to the population (The Times Jordan, 2009). In addition, according to the Telecommunications Regulatory Commission, the internet penetration in Jordan reached around 30% in 2009 and is expected to more than 50% by 2010 (The Times Jordan, 2009). However, although the market is rapidly maturing mobile in many Western European countries, the infant is still in many Asian countries and the Middle East. In addition, most of the previous studies examining marketing in mobile western context, and little solicitude are paid to the investigation of this strategy in the Arab world.

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

Civilize The Wilderness :: essays research papers

Civilize the WildernessWilderness, why civilize it? This is an interesting question, and onethat is hard to answer. Why non just leave the wilderness alone, and let itgrow and decide its own beginnings and ends? Does civilizing the wildernessmake it bump or worse? In what ways is it better or worse if we leave italone or it we civilize it? These are all excellent questions and are allworthwhile to think about.Western destination has tried to civilize the wilderness for quite sometimenow, but is it really something we should be doing? In the point of view ofmany, the wilderness should be down to jibe for the increasingnumber of people in the world. We should also civilize it because we need theextra room and because we cannot live in uncivilized areas of the wilderness, atleast not with all of the comforts of home. What effects will civilizing thewilderness now hold in in the future? Many questions can arise when contemplatingcivilizing the wilderness.The wilderness is being c ivilized for one main reason. That reason istechnology. Technology plays an important role in everyones lives today.Without it, we would not have com couchers, fax machines, cellular phones, and allof the modern conveniences that we have today. The fact is, that many peoplebelieve that the wilderness is like an unborn country. A country that hasnothing and is striving to become more advanced. We see this as an opportunityto better it and make it seem like we are actually helping. But, are we reallyhelping? In my opinion, no. I feel that we are destroying something naturaland something of beauty.In many ways we are making the wilderness worse by civilizing it. Weput unnatural objects into the wilderness, and it destroys the wildernessnatural beauty. Thoreaus ideal is to pretty very much leave the wilderness as it is.If you need to inhabit it, dont use anything that does not come from within it.For example, Thoreau built his cabin from the trees that were in the wildernessthat surrou nded it. In this way, civilizing the wilderness is okay. The way weare civilizing it, is not okay. Too just clear-cut an entire forest, then builda house, an in ground swimming pool, and put up a satellite dish, is not exactlyideal to keeping the wilderness natural.To destroy the beauty of the wilderness by civilizing it in the way that

Civilize The Wilderness :: essays research papers

Civilize the WildernessWilderness, why civilize it? This is an interesting question, and onethat is hard to answer. why not just leave the wilderness alone, and let itgrow and decide its own beginnings and ends? Does civilizing the wildernessmake it better or worse? In what slip look is it better or worse if we leave italone or it we civilize it? These are all excellent questions and are allworthwhile to think about. westward culture has tried to civilize the wilderness for quite sometimenow, but is it really something we should be doing? In the point of view ofmany, the wilderness should be polish to accommodate for the increasingnumber of people in the world. We should also civilize it because we need theextra room and because we cannot live in uncivilized areas of the wilderness, atleast not with all of the comforts of home. What effects will civilizing thewilderness now have in the future? Many questions can arise when contemplatingcivilizing the wilderness.The wilderness is cosmos civilized for one main reason. That reason istechnology. Technology plays an important role in everyones lives today.Without it, we would not have computers, fax machines, cellular phones, and allof the modern amenities that we have today. The fact is, that many peoplebelieve that the wilderness is like an unborn country. A country that hasnothing and is striving to become more advanced. We absorb this as an opportunityto better it and make it seem like we are actually helping. But, are we reallyhelping? In my opinion, no. I sapidity that we are destroying something naturaland something of beauty.In many ways we are making the wilderness worse by civilizing it. Weput unnatural objects into the wilderness, and it destroys the wildernessnatural beauty. Thoreaus ideal is to pretty much leave the wilderness as it is.If you need to inhabit it, dont use anything that does not come from within it.For example, Thoreau built his cabin from the trees that were in the wildernessthat encircled it. In this way, civilizing the wilderness is okay. The way weare civilizing it, is not okay. Too just clear-cut an entire forest, then builda house, an in ground limpid pool, and put up a satellite dish, is not exactlyideal to keeping the wilderness natural.To destroy the beauty of the wilderness by civilizing it in the way that

Monday, May 27, 2019

Mental Health as Social Problem Essay

Mental infirmity can be a social problem because there are a lot of psychogenic illnesses that accept how you socialize with the world. For instance, anxiety / panic disorders affect your ability to communicate with the world. Social anxiety disorder equals social phobia. With social anxiety disorder, you find it hard if not impossible to talk to anyone. Typically a person with social anxiety disorder will sit by themselves, sequestered from society due to their phobia of it. A person with severe picture could be affected socially as well. A depressed person will typically be withdrawn and wont open up about his/her feelings. They are not likely to be happy, social, or cheerful. They tend to be seeers and social loners. If a person is depressed, usually family and friends might be able to pick up on it. Depressive people are also prone to suicide.Suicide is obviously a spacious social problem as suicide is one of the highest killers in the world today. The high profile news s tories that hit the tabloids about mothers who kill their kids due to post-partum depression or some other mental illness are defiantly a social problem. The Columbine, the Virginia Tech shooting, Heritage senior high school School, etc. people gnarly in the school shootings had mental illnesses of some sort. The guy responsible for the Virginia Tech shooting had antisocial personality disorder the child responsible for Heritage High School was depressed, etc. A lot of the school shootings were caused by people that massacred, and then killed themselves all of these people had some kind of mental illness. The families of people with mental illnesses are also affected. There are therapy sessions directed towards the whole family that are designed to help the family cope with a family members mental illnesses. empathise moreSocial Problems EssayI watched a show on TV, the episode dealt with two families whose daughters were diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia. The episode talked ab out the sacrifices that the parents of the family had to make to take safeguard of their mentally ill children. The family members of people with mental illnesses try to work with the mentally ill to see how they are doing, to help them cope with life, to manage medicines, and to even submit some at home therapy. Mental illness is very much a social problem when you consider the consequences when mental illness is ignored. Mental illness does not only affect the person who is diagnosed of it but anyone and everyone that he/she is connected to.The families of people with mental health problems tend to find it difficult also with the economic aid in the Community Act (CCA) in place, where people with mental health problems stay in their own homes and are visited every week by a Community Psychiatric Nurse. The CCA was put in place by the Thatcher government, and as a result nearly all of the big psychiatric hospitals were torn down and all that remains now are small clinics with fe wer beds mainly used for people with severe mental health problems.The patients that used to be cared for in hospitals are now being cared for in the community. In a lot of cases this is not helpful for the patient or the community as sometimes their needs are not met fully. Not everybody in communities is sympathetic to people with mental health problems and this can also have a detrimental effect on the person with the problems. Understanding of mental health from the general public is a bit better than it used to be, but there is still a foresightful way to go. A lot of people think that Thatchers idea for Care in the Community was just a way to cut beds and survive money rather than caring about the patients welfare. Also employment is hard to find for anyone.

Sunday, May 26, 2019

Visionary Leadership In Health Health And Social Care Essay

In much of the underdeveloped universe, there is a broad spread between what has been achieved and what is desired in health. Technologies atomic number 18 avail satisfactory to criminal to the assorted health c at oncerns which may assist in obtaining the many health-related ends. But this has non happened. The worldly concern health Organisation s ( WHO ) Framework for Action 1 underscores the importance of scream uping wellness systems to better wellness results. There is a demand to stress the function of establishment edifice in wellness systems in so that access and quality of available wellness go can be im be 2 . However, a losing piece of this triangulation of critical factors for accomplishing coveted wellness results may good be found in a airy lead-in.In surgical incision Two of this chapter, a instance is make for beef uping leading in wellness as the success in bettering wellness has been unequal. Advancement has been slow in accomplishing several(prenominal) health-related Millennium Development Goals ( MDGs ) every bit good as turn toing sensing or non-communicable diseases or wellness domain reforms. Most reappraisals of advancement have showed a deficiency of leading and political will, and argued for greater leading that could excise to deepen insurance attending and resources which would ensue in targeted effectual curriculums or accomplishing endetary criterions such as the Millennium Development Goals ( MDGs ) . The demand for beef uping leading is non current or limited to developing democracys. In 1994, Milbank Memorial Fund organized a meeting around leading in public wellness 3 . In the debut of the study, Daniel M. Fox and William L. Roper sum up the positions of participants and writers as followsThe writers of these documents agree that jobs of leading contribute to the trouble of doing and implementing policy to better the wellness of the American populace. By leading they mean the capacity of professionals to work efficaciously during long c each(prenominal)ings in a assortment of organisations that command resources and favourable attending from elected functionaries and the world(a) populace. The writers, on with many of their co-workers among senior public wellness professionals, believe that much effectual leading would better the interlingual rendition of bing cognition ab expose the barrier and gibe of disease into policies that lead to longer and healthier lives. leads can do a difference, as handleed in Section Three of this chapter. A instance of a attractor doing a difference in the ope ration of wellness Centre in a province in India is presented. Many such illustrations abound in the literature 4 . A young illustration of leading s function in Senegal s determination to offer barren wellness forethought is discussed.What do leading necessitate to constrain? While a deficiency of equal resources is frequently menti 1d as a cardinal barrier to accomplishing better consequences but illustrations in Section Four contradict this. We foremost discuss an illustration where a heavy(a) female s life was saved despite gestation complications. The experience of Sri Lanka with impose downcasting maternal mortality shows what can be achieved in resource-constrained scenes. Similarly, several states have achieved singular success in careen by reversaling or foreclose spread of human immunodeficiency virus including Thailand, Uganda and Senegal. Practices which lead to their success have been analyzed by UN help. We map these patterns through a leading position taking to results of shared out vision, reorient values, coordinated practices/ behaviours and leveraged resources of the wellness system. This is the result leaders need to accomplish.Inadequate come near in Bettering health Case for Strengthened LeadershipThe Millennium Development GoalsIn two hundred0, the 189 United Nations Member States met at the Millennium Summit and adopted eight ends and 18 fools to battle poorness, hungriness, disease, favoritism against adult females, debasement of land, and illiteracy. The universe suppuration community is challenged to accomplish MDGs by 2015.The Millennium Declaration ( paras 11 and 12 ) provinces 5 We will save no attempt to liberate our fellow work forces, adult females and kids from the abject and dehumanizing conditions of production poorness, to which more than a billion of them are presently subjected. We are committed to doing the right to development a world for every cardinal and to liberating the full human race from privation.We ensconce hence to make an environment at the national and planetary degrees which is contributing to development and to the riddance of poorness. Three of the eight MDGs are wellness related ends ( tabularize 1 ) kid mortality ( MDG 4 ) , maternal wellness ( MDG 5 ) and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome ( MDG 6 ) . In add-on, gender ( MDG 3 ) is a cross- abridgeting issue that impacts many wellness issues including the cardinal above. Other MDGs such as poorness and instruction have a strong correlated relationship with the societal determiners of wellness. hedge 1. The Millennium Development GoalsNoGoals1Eradicate utmost poorness and hungriness2Achieve cosmopolitan primary instruction3 get up gender equality and empower adult females4Reduce kid mortality5Improve maternal wellness6Combat human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS, malaria and early(a) diseases7Ensure environmental sustainability8Develop a planetary partnership for developmentBeginning UN. The Millennium Development Goals Report 2011Inadequate Progress towards Health Millennium Development GoalsA speedy reappraisal in 2004 reveals that most states were non on path to make wellness related MDGs. Harmonizing to the World Bank 6 , southwesterly Asia was off path on six ends gender equality, cosmopolitan primary school completion, kid mortality, maternal mortali ty, catching diseases and sanitation. tocopherol Asia and the Pacific part as a whole were away path on kid mortality, maternal mortality and catching diseases. Merely about a 4th of all states in the South and East Asia and the Pacific were on path to accomplish under-five mortality rate where merely 9.7 per centum wad in South Asia and 17.4 per centum plurality in East Asia and the Pacific part live in these states. This state of affairs is incessant(a) worse for maternal mortality, where less than 15 per centum of the states were on path to make this end.Although recent estimations for kid mortality vary, appraisals have highlighted that several states are off-track to accomplish the MDG 4 which calls for a two-thirds decrease in mortality in kids younger than 5 honest-to-god ages between 1990 and 2015. It is estimated that world-wide mortality in kids younger than 5 doddery ages has dropped from 11.9 million pass alongs in 1990 to 7.7 million deceases in 2010, a per yr diminution of near 2.1 % compared to 4.4 % per year needful to accomplish MDG 4 7 . Examination of distribution of annual evaluate of alteration in under-5 mortality shows that the MDG 4 mark of decrease rate of 4.4 % per twelvemonth corresponds to public presentation of states at the 67 percentile degree clearly a stretch mark. This distribution of advancement for kid mortality besides highlights that explosions of rapid diminution are possible. The survey by Rajratnam et Al. ( 2010 ) suggests that, For illustration, 66 states have decreased child mortality by more than 30 % in merely 5 old ages during the period of this survey . Such singular diminution provides hope that accelerated advancement is possible. These robust estimations of mortality in kids younger than 5 old ages show that accelerated diminutions are happening in several low income states. These positive developments suggest that the advancement can be accelerated in woeful states but may necessitate to turn to leading challenges taking to heighten policy attending and resources which would consequences in targeted effectual plans.The MDG 5 purposes to better maternal wellness with a end of reduce belt down maternal mortality ratio ( MMR ) , lick of maternal deceases per 100,000 unrecorded births, by 75 % between 1990 and 2015. It therefore seeks to accomplish a 5.5 % one-year diminution in MMR from 1990. The recent UN study 8 estimated that globally the one-year per centum diminution in MMR between 1990 and 2008 was merely 2.3 % , less than half of what is needed to accomplish the MDG 5. An estimated 358,000 maternal deceases occurred worldwide in 2008, a 34 % diminution from the degree of 1990. The UN Report goes on to state, The modest and encouraging advancement in sign on downing maternal mortality is likely due to change magnitude attending to developing and implementing policies and schemes aiming increased entree to effectual intercessions. Such attempts need to be grow and intensified to speed up advancement towards cut downing the still in truth broad disparities between developing and developed states. We will subsequently on discourse how Sri Lanka was able to halve their MMR in approximately 7 to 10 old ages and associate it to how leading challenges were addressed. Advancement at this gait in cut downing MMR would hold been equal to accomplish the MDG 5. This clearly shows that much needed leading was non forthcoming.Nowhere is the influence of leading more seeable than for human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS plans, peculiarly by concourse populating with human immunodeficiency virus ( PLHIV ) . The consequences are seeable in advancement towards a mark of MDG 6 which aims to Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases. The UN study 9 on advancement towards MDG 6 suggests that against the mark to halve infections by 2015 and get down to change by reversal the spread of HIV/AIDS the spread of HIV appears to hold stabilized in most parts, and more people on antiretroviral intervention ( ART ) are lasting longer. The study says, The latest epidemiological teaching indicates that, globally, the spread of HIV appears to hold peaked in 1996, when 3.5 million people were freshly infected. By 2008, that figure had dropped to an estimated 2.7 million. However, much more is required for quickly cut downing the new infections.Advancement is besides seeable towards the 6th mark have pinched by 2015 and begun to change by reversal the relative incidence of malaria and other study diseases mostly driven by external attending and resources as evinced by formation of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria. The UN study says, Sustained malaria master is cardinal to accomplishing many of the MDGs, and available informations show important advancement in scaling up bar and intervention attempts. The study concludes, more attending demands to be tending(p) to guaranting success in big states that account for most m alaria instances and deceases if the MDG mark is to be reached. The external influence on big states is likely to be subdued and more vigorous in-country leading is needed to turn to disease load due to malaria.The advancement on TB is edging frontward as incidence rate per capita continues to worsen easy. The UN study concludes, If current tendencies are prolong, the universe as a whole will hold already achieved the MDG mark of halting and change by reversaling the incidence of TB in 2004. However, because of deficiency of entree to high quality management, TB remains a 2nd of import cause for the figure of people it kills. In 2008, 1.8 million people died from this disease.The MDGs passed the 12th twelvemonth grade in 2012 and there are one-third old ages to travel before the mark twelvemonth 2015. There has been progress but it has been un level off and patchy. For case, where there have been motions towards accomplishments of MDG marks, there was grounds that leading was vigorous and contributed towards actions for coveted wellness results. So, this is the chance and leading challenge for accomplishing MDGs by 2015.Non-Communicable DiseasesAlthough no specific MDGs were set for non-communicable diseases ( NCDs ) , they are a cause of the bulk of deceases, and the planetary disease load of NCDs is increasing.The Lancet NCD Action base and the NCD onlyiance say 10 that there is a demand to make a keep up planetary engagement against premature deceases and preventable morbidity and disablement from NCDs, in the first place bosom disease, shot, malignant neoplastic disease, diabetes and chronic respiratory diseases. It proposed five everyplacearching precedence actions for the response to the crisis leading, bar, intervention, international cooperation, and monitoring and answerability and the bringing of five precedence intercessions tobacco control, salt decrease, amend diets and physical activity, decrease in risky intoxicants intake, and internal drugs and engineerings.The study goes on to state, The first cardinal action for success is strong and sustained political leading at the higher national and international degrees .. Individual title-holders and politicians will besides necessitate to take a leading function. The wellness area has a prima function in reacting to NCDs but many other authorities sectors including finance, agribusiness, foreign personal businesss and trade, justness, instruction, urban design and conveyance, have to be office of the whole-of-goernment response, along with civil society and private sector. Clearly the wellness plan leading of NCDs would hold to travel beyond their zone of influence to these other sectors.Health SectorHealth sector is confronting many challenges due to medical progresss every bit good as rapid epidemiological and economic passages, although their nature and strength vary from state to state. All wellness systems are fighting to incorporate costs while better ing wellness equity.Such a state of affairs, in lower oneself, poses many challenges for leaders of wellness sector. An independent Commission on the Education of Health Professionals for the twenty-first Century called for a 3rd coevals of wellness professionals that should be system-based to better the public presentation of wellness systems 11 .The acquisition of wellness professionals need to travel from enlightening to formative to transformative acquisition. Enlightening acquisition is about geting cognition and accomplishments. Formative acquisition is about enculturation pupils around values its intent is to bring forth professionals. Transformative acquisition is about developing leading attributes its intent is to bring forth enlightened alteration agents. The eventual(prenominal) intent is to guarantee cosmopolitan coverage of the high quality comprehensive services that are indispensable to progress chance for wellness equity at bottom and between states.Health sec tor reforms require non merely top degree political leading but besides leading of wellness sector at assorted degrees. This calls for leading to do a difference in wellness and, thereby, accelerate advancement in accomplishing MDGs.Leaderships Can Make a DifferenceLeaderships can make itCase study 1 Chainpur Primary Health Centre, Jharkhand, IndiaThe Chainpur primary wellness Centre ( PHC ) is located about three kilometres from the territory infirmary in Palamu territory of Jharkhand province in India 12 . In 2006, the PHC was in bad form. Grass had grown in the PHC compound and the manus pump had rusted from non-use. Very few people used the PHC services. Dr. A, medical officer in-charge ( MOIC ) , and his co-worker, Dr. G felt that non much could be done. Who will come to Chainpur when you can travel to territory infirmary in 20 proceedingss? , they said to a sing squad from an academic institute to discourse engagement of Dr. A in a leading development and organisation effec tiveness plan ( LDOE ) being launched with support from a giver. Despite his reserves, Dr. A agreed to take part.Through two round tables of preparation and during follow-up by LDOE squad, several thoughts for betterment were discussed and routinely rejected as it was felt that non much could be done . However, Drs. A and G began to experience that something should be done.As a dowery of the preparation, Dr. A participated in advanced leading preparation in Malaysia and was inspired by the operation of the Malaysian wellness system during a field visit. Dr. A motivated his co-worker Dr. G that they would seek to better the PHC. As financess were available from the National Rural Health Mission ( NRHM ) , their first effort was to better the so moribund bringing room.Women s feed tail end was used to better quality of installations and do services user-friendly. For case, payment of inducements for institutional bringing under a national schema was given before the adult females left for place after bringing. As territory infirmary was nigh, adult females with complications of gestation could be easy referred at that place. then the figure of bringings increased significantly.The layout of outpatient waiting room was improved. Benchs were provided and a little Television and purified H2O dispenser was installed with community part. These and other steps, despite being modest in nature, led the District Health stationr to praise Chainpur PHC and urge other medical officers to see it and detect its operation. A journalist visited Chainpur PHC and wrote about it in a newspaper. This became a theoretical account known as Chainpur Model in Palamu territory.Take Home Messages on leading Chainpur PHCWhat did it take to originate a alteration?What did it take to do a alteration?What were the costs and benefits?Leaderships Can Get It DoneCase Study 2 How did Sierra Leone Provide Free Health Care?On 27 April 2010, Sierra Leone started free wellness attention for p regnant adult females, new female parents, and immature kids. John Donnelly took an in-depth expression at how the war-worn state managed it 13 .In November 2009, Koroma, the president of Sierra Leone announced at a givers conference in London that he is originating a free health-care course of instruction on 27 April 2010, merely five months off, which coincided with the 49th day of remembrance of the state s independency from Great Britain. Now, one twelvemonth subsequently, the consequences are in the free health-care architectural plan has well increased services for female parents, and peculiarly for kids. The figure of kids treated for malaria, for case, has approximately tripled from the old twelvemonth, a dramatic illustration of how the deficiency of money proved to be a barrier to attention. What happened in Sierra Leone was breathtaking , said Rob Yates, senior wellness economic expert at the UK s department of International Development ( DfID ) a month after the lau nch. Yates has advised several authoritiess in Africa on establishing free health-care enterprises. In five months, they were able to make a systematic reform in the Sierra Leone wellness system , he said. They had leading that galvanized the whole system. We have nt realized the full importance of what they have done. The mean was more thorough than any I have seen. Other authoritiess can larn from Sierra Leone. In Sierra Leone, the cardinal factor, harmonizing to those interviewed, was the president he shake off the health-care directive at the top of his precedence list. Political will drove the procedure.Although giver community was ab initio loath, they were willing to follow. There were other important factors. The Ministry of Health and Sanitation, which was responsible for action of the enterprise, was fortunate to hold cardinal leaders in proficient places, such as the main medical officer, the manager of generative wellness services, and the caput of human resources . They took on extra duties at a metre when the ministry was without a curate. This was critical to the success of the free wellness attention program.They motivated people and played the function of wellness diplomat. One of them, although cognizing what had to be done, did non follow a direct nature of taking. It was compromising, warm and friendly. It was, Do you think we could make this? alternatively of wherefore the snake pit has this non happened? Another took on the function of ministry interpreter for free wellness attention. Merely before the launch of free wellness attention, he went on wireless shows and keep imperativeness conferences. Cardinal leaders in the ministry were assigned territories and each travelled to the countries a twosome of yearss before the launch.The attempt to convey free wellness attention to Sierra Leone was non easy or simple, and ministry functionaries readily admit to doing incorrect determinations at assorted points. But to do the enterpri se a success, tonss of people worked long hours for months toward a individual end that they believed in.Take Home Messages on leading Sierra Leone s Free Health Care PlanWhat and who made the difference?What resources were most important?What were the costs and benefits?Leaderships Know What Needs to be DoneCase Study 3 woman whose life was saved Overcoming Adversity at parental and Pre-natal Clinic, Tarapoto Regional Health Centre, San Martin 14 genus genus Rosa Diaz Barboza is a occupant of the Tabalosos territory in San Martin. At 18 old ages of age, Rosa was a merrily get married adult female settling down to life with her new hubby and life on the farm and anticipating her first kid. Her distant place is located three hours from the closest wellness station, which is merely accessible by pes and even so, when it rains, the route is sometimes wholly out of use and no 1 is able to obtain in or out. However, despite all these geographical troubles, during the first trimester of Rosa s gestation, outreach attempts by the regional wellness Centres were able to acquire to Rosa and she received antenatal instruction and attention.During a everyday prenatal visit, it was discovered that Rosa s gestation could be a high hazard one due to several factors including anaemia. Taking into consideration the possible geographical troubles, deficiency of equipment and qualified staff, Rosa was referred to the wellness Centre in San Juan de Talliquihui where she could be attended to by non merely a nurse but besides a qualified clinical accoucheuse.At the 8th month of her gestation, Rosa and her hubby began the long pilgrimage to San Juan which involved a three-hour trek uphill to make the closest route. In San Juan, they stayed with relations and Rosa s hubby picked up uneven occupations to get down salvaging money for the new babe. At the wellness clinic, Rosa was checked every hebdomad and everything seemed to be come oning usually. Nevertheless, clinic staff cont inuously praised Rosa and her hubby for be aftering in front.In the early hours of 25 June, Rosa began holding labour strivings and the accoucheuse was called instantly who confirmed that she was so in active labour. At 830 am, Rosa was transported to the wellness Centre where they were met by the Ob/Gyn Nurse. By 930 am, Rosa was ready to give birth but unluckily, the alone(predicate) comfy bed in the Centre was occupied so, she was forced to give birth on difficult board which made the labour procedure even more painful.At 1009 am, Luzmirella was born she took her first breath and allow out a loud cry. She appeared healthy and normal and Rosa seemed to be managing the state of affairs good. Everyone was relieved and Rosa s hubby rapidly ran place for a pillow and cover for his married woman. Forty proceedingss subsequently, the nurse observed that Rosa s placenta had still non been expelled and she was shed blooding somewhat. Concerned by her anterior anaemia diagnosing and, to b e on the safe side, she decided to get down the communications protocol to forestall electric shock ( low-risk degree ) ( Red ALERT-a really successful series of first assistance protocols for the bar of daze developed by the regional wellness Centre ) and tried to pull out the placenta manually but she was unsuccessful.At that point, she gathered the household members and suggested that they take Rosa to the infirmary in Cunumbuque. This infirmary, located an hr and a half off by auto, has a physician on call 24 hours a twenty-four hours. Initially, Rosa refused to travel stating she would instead decease than be moved in her current status. After bespeaking privateness with his married woman, Rosa s hubby pleaded with her stating if non for him, she had to make it for their kid. At this point, Rosa agreed to the transportation.San Juan is a rural, distant town and as such, community leaders have developed eventuality programs for exigencies. For this state of affairs, they decid ed to make two thingscommunicate via CB wirelesss with people populating along the main road to inform them about the exigency and to bespeak a vehicle which can take a piece and,direct person to the infirmary to return with the infirmary s ambulance.Due to the communities valiant attempts, by 1230pm, Rosa was on her manner to the infirmary. At this point, she was shed blooding to a great consummation and all the nurse could make was go on with protocol, administer injections of saline solution and massage Rosa s venters. Rosa was hectic and non antiphonal, and she slipped in and out of consciousness.At 130 autopsy, over 3.5 hours after giving birth, they got Rosa to the infirmary in Cunumbuque. By this clip, she was wholly non-responsive and had lost all centripetal feelings. Doctors at that place instantly transferred her to the operating room where they tried a manual extraction of the placenta, which at this point was half manner out. After 30 proceedingss, the physician decid ed that Rosa needed specialized attending by a qualified sawbones with the necessary equipment.With IVs in two weaponries to forestall utmost daze due the profuse blood loss, Rosa was transferred once more to the Maternity and Prenatal Clinic and, it was at that place that at 400pm, the placenta was eventually extracted and Rosa was given over 4 litres of blood.The physician who finally removed the placenta, said it was due to ALL the actions taken by all the parties involved that saved Rosa s life from the wellness booster who encouraged Rosa to travel to the wellness station to, the adult male who practically ran all the manner to the infirmary to acquire the ambulance and the nurse who massaged Rosa s belly for 2 hours. The little room where Rosa was instantly moved to was a drab assemblage boulder carcass she opened her eyes and asked for her babe.Presently, Rosa and her hubby are be aftering Luzmirella s first birthday party in June. They plan on ask foring all the hospital s taff who helped guarantee that Luzmirella, a healthy, boisterous 11 month old can really observe her first and hopefully many more birthdays.Table 1 examines the factors related to the recovery of Rosa. Family/ family, community and authorities wellness system non merely coordinated their responses but besides leveraged resources available to them. These in bend were guided by shared vision about life being cherished and valued maternal wellness.Table 1. Success Factors related to the Recovery of RosaIndividual/ HouseholdCommunityGovernment Health SystemVisionWoman s life is cherishedSave life when there are gestation complicationsSave lifeValuessProper wellness attention can save up life during gestation complicationsPregnancy complications need to be addressedContinuum of attentionPracticesStay near the wellness installation when gestation was dueImplement a eventuality programHealth suppliers, nurse, physician all do that is neededResourcesFamily contributes its resourcesCommuni ty members contributes its labour.Health system uses all available resourcesThe above illustration shows that shared vision, aligned values, coordinated patterns and leveraging resources among individuals/ families, communities and wellness system can cut down maternal deceases. Achieving these is the map of leading as discussed below.Case Study 4 Reducing Maternal Mortality in Sri Lanka 15 It is good known that engineerings to accomplish health-related ends are available. However, resource deficits are frequently cited as barriers to accomplishing them but the World Bank survey of success of Sri Lanka ( Pathmanathan et. Al. 2003 16 ) in cut downing maternal mortality illustrates importance of wellness systems development and the function of institutional development in bettering entree and quality of available maternal wellness services.The 5th MDGs of bettering maternal wellness has a mark of Reducing the maternal mortality ratio by three-fourthss, between 1990 and 2015 . Based on experiences in Sri Lanka and Malaysia for more than 5 decennaries, the World Bank survey concludes that maternal mortality can be halved in developing states every 7 to 10 old ages . So the above MDG is accomplishable, although the overall advancement in cut downing maternal mortality since the 1890ss, as we saw in Section 2 falls short of the end.What will it take to accomplish this MDG? The Sri Lankan survey shows that maternal mortality decrease is low-cost regardless of income degree and growing rate. The route to maternal mortality decrease fundamentally includes skilled birth attending during child birth, direction of exigencies and complications of gestation and kid birth, and administer maternal deceases.The critical schemes of wellness systems development used by Sri Lanka for cut downing maternal mortality ratio is shown in Figure 1. It comprisedconstructing a nucleotide for effectual pregnancy attention,taking barriers to entree andbettering use of available insta llations.The needed institutional alterations in nucleus and complementary establishments arehuman resource development and direction,aiming the hapless,constructing a functional referral system,taking barriers to entreefurthering community mobilisation,beef uping answerability, andbetter organisational direction including execution of progressively sophisticated monitoring system.Coincident betterments in back uping establishments through improved conveyance increased seasonably entree. The enabling establishments besides played a function. The early additions in female instruction and the authorization of adult females through the electoral procedure provided an environment that sustained political and managerial committedness to bettering maternal wellness every bit good as improved wellness attention seeking behaviour. Fiscal barriers to pregnancy attention were removed by the authorities s political committedness and society s outlooks of wellness and instruction services to be provided free of charge. Oversight establishments are besides known to hold complemented these attempts synergistically. Civil enrollment of births and deceases was governed by statute law, and maternal deceases were viewed with satisfactory concern to justify particular coverage by the Registrar General.Figure 1 shows the conventional position of wellness system development for cut downing maternal mortality. However, as shown in Table 2, these can besides be seen from a leading position of making shared vision, alining values, organizing patterns and leveraging resources among individuals/ families, communities.Figure 1. Conventional short letterHealth System Development for Reducing Maternal MortalityThe three schemes are mutualistResource allotmentEstablishing solid foundation for effectual pregnancy attentionIncreasing entree to such attentionTargeting the haplessEnsure appropriate use of available services through improved qualityGovernments can render to supply the critic al elements of pregnancy attention free of charge to the client.Local accoucheusesSupervisory nurse mid-wives backed by referral services for complications of gestationRural central pointRemove physical, societal and fiscal barriers and foster community mobilisationSupportive supervisingAccountability through preparationBetter organisational direction including execution of progressively sophisticated monitoring system Systematic reactivity to public demands and outlooksTable 2 It Can be Done Leadership PerspectiveUndertakingsHousehold/familyCommunityHealth systemCreate shared visionFemale instructionSophisticated monitoring system and particular coverageAlign valuesAuthorization of adult femalesPolitical and managerial committednessSystematic reactivity to public demands and outlooksCoordinate patternsRemove physical, societal and fiscal barriersMobilize communitySupervisory nurse-midwives backed by a referral system for complications of gestationLeverage resourcesImproved conveya nceFree of charge servicesLeaderships Know It Can Be Done Leaderships Positions To Address HIV/AIDSBelow we discuss three states 17 which had achieved noteworthy success in battling HIV/AIDS in early phases of AIDS epidemic Uganda, Senegal and Thailand which have been documented by UNAIDS as best pattern instance surveies.UgandaUganda is one of the universe s poorer states and one of the most badly affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. In 1998, it had 21 million people, with less than 14 % life in metropoliss. The gross national merchandise per capita was tantamount to about US $ 240. unblemished HIV preponderance among grownups was over 8 % .Fortunately, Uganda is besides one of the African states where the HIV epidemic was recognized comparatively early and so prevention attempts were started on a national degree. 18 In 1986, the President publically acknowledged the state s HIV/AIDS job and made a committedness to mobilising attempts against it. A national figure for the AIDS plan was established early in the epidemic.The state adopted a multi-sectoral attack. The Uganda AIDS Commission was set up in the Office of the President, and HIV/AIDS control plan were established in several authorities ministries, including the Ministry of Health.Different degrees of society were involved such as political, community and religious leaders. The Islamic Medical Association of Uganda supported community instruction on HIV/AIDS throughout the state, including the distribution of dicks. 19 Radio messages on HIV/AIDS were interpenetrate widely.Condom societal selling services, backed by USAID, were implemented countrywide.HIV voluntary guidance and testing was made available extensively and outside the full-dress health-care service.Uganda s success in HIV bar can be seen from the followersPercentage of grownups infected declined from a extremum of approximately 14 % to approximately 6 % in 2003.Steep addition in rubber usage the proportion of work forces who sai d that they had of all time used a rubber rose from 15 % to 55 % . Among adult females, the sum rose from 6 % to 39 % .Behavior alteration Percentage sexually experienced work forces at age 18 fell from about 90 % in 1989 to 50 % in 1995.SenegalMuch has been written about the demand to step in early to halt the spread of HIV before it spreads to the general population. Senegal s HIV bar plan has been extended and contains the elements of an effectual plan. There is good grounds that Senegal has maintained one of the lowest rates of infection in sub-Saharan Africa by altering the behaviour of many of its citizens. 20 Like Uganda, Senegal is non a rich state. In 1998, it had 9 million people, with 44 % life in towns. Per capita income was below US $ 600 a twelvemonth. Entire HIV prevalence among grownups was estimated at approximately 1.8 % .Senegal has long emphasized bar and primary wellness attention. Generative wellness and kid wellness are well-established precedences. In add-o n, registered sex workers are required to hold regular wellness cheques, and are treated for any curable sexually transmitted infections ( STIs ) that are found.What was the response in Senegal?As in Uganda, politicians in Senegal were speedy to travel against the epidemic once the first instances appeared in the 2nd half of the 1980s.Since 93 % of Senegalese are Muslims, the authorities made attempts to affect spiritual leaders. HIV/AIDS became a regular subject in Friday discourses in mosques, and senior spiritual figures talked about it on telecasting and wireless.Many other degrees of Senegalese society joined in. By 1995, 200 NGOs were active in the response, as were adult females s groups with about half a million members.HIV bar was included when sex instruction was introduced in schools. Parallel attempts reached out to immature people who are non in school.HIV voluntary and confidential guidance and proving were made available.Plans were instantly put in topographical poin t to back up sex workers to carry their clients to utilize rubber.Sexually Transmitted Infections ( STIs ) moved up the list of wellness precedences. Senegal was one of the first states in Africa to set up a national STI control plan that integrated STI attention into regular primary wellness services.Senegal s success in HIV bar can be seen from the followersHIV prevalence among pregnant adult females was merely over 1.4 % at the terminal of 1996, with no important inclination of an orbit over clip.Condom distribution rose from 500,000 pieces in 1988 to 7 million pieces in 1997.Median age at first sex for adult females in 1997 for 25-29 old ages age group was 17.7 old ages but increased to 18.7 old ages for 20-24 old ages age group.Clearly, much in the societal construction and wellness services of Senegal before AIDS favored a successful response. In add-on, strong political committedness and the execution of effectual bar activities helped maintain Senegal s rates of HIV infecti on among the lowest in sub-Saharan Africa.SiamFew states show the nexus between behaviour and HIV infection every bit clearly as Thailand. 21 Overall, behavioural alterations have reduced the figure of new HIV infections each twelvemonth from about 143,000 in 1991 to 29,000 in 2000.Thailand has a little over 60 million people, approximately 20 % of whom live in metropoliss. The gross national merchandise per capita was tantamount to about US $ 2700 in 1998. HIV prevalence among grownups was estimated at approximately 1.9 % , with higher prevalence in certain geographical countries and among certain groups. Thailand s HIV prevalence is lower than that of Uganda, but it means a similar figure of people populating with HIV/AIDS.The effectual countrywide bar plan, which began in 1991, included several elementsThe Prime Minister chaired the National AIDS Program.The Office of the Prime Minister took an active function in policy treatment, led the national public instruction attempt utili zing government-run mass media ( that is, public, non private ) , and took portion in monitoring.The Parliament established a sub-committee on AIDS.The National Economic and Social Development Board worked closely with the Ministry of Public Health to incorporate the National AIDS Plan into the five-year National Development Plan.The authorities AIDS budget increased drastically during the undermentioned old ages.Each cardinal ministry had its ain AIDS program and budget every bit good as a individual as the AIDS focal point.All bucolic governors led the AIDS plan in their several states through the provincial development planning system.The concern community, people populating with HIV/AIDS, spiritual leaders and other community leaders became really involved in lending to policy duologue, resource mobilisation and the local execution of activities.In Thailand, 1991 was the turning point on human rights protection for PLHIV. HIV was removed from the list of diseases that required presentment to the wellness authorization. The prohibition on entry to Thailand of people with HIV/AIDS was lifted. A set of national policy guidelines to protect the rights of PLHIV was issued. 22 The most dramatic consequence of the national plan, famously known as 100 % rubber plan, can be seen from the followersEntire figure of people populating with HIV/AIDS decreased from about 750,000 in 1995 to 650,000 in 2000.Work forces aged 15-49 sing sex workers dropped from 19 % in 1990 to 9 % in 1993.Reported figure of STIs in male fell from about 200,000 in 1989 to less than 20,000 in 1994.Consistent rubber usage among sex workers increased from over 50 % in 1990 to about 90 % in 1996.It Can Be Done Conventional PositionTo show that success can be achieved even in resource-poor scenes, the experiences of these three states with differing civilizations and different degrees of the epidemic are discussed here. Uganda was difficult hit throughout the 1980s, and has had about two million cumulative AIDS-related deceases since so. Senegal, on the other manus, had non been earnestly affected by the epidemic. In Thailand, the epidemic became outstanding merely at the terminal of the 1980s but spread quickly once it took clasp. These are three different state of affairss, but behavioural alteration and some containment of the epidemic were achieved in these three developing states even with resource restraints.What are some indispensable characteristics of effectual plans which are shared by the three states? In each one, national AIDS plans portion a bundle of common characteristics that UNAIDS respects as best pattern , viz. strong political committedness at the highest degree to covering with the epidemic ( this ensures policies and funding to turn to the epidemic ) multi-sectoral attacks to bar and attention and, at authorities degree, engagement by multiple ministries multilevel responses ( at national, provincial, territory and community degrees ) effectual mon itoring of the epidemic and hazard behaviours, and airing of the findings both to better policies and plans and to prolong consciousness a combination of attempts aimed at the general population and focused on groups at high hazard, at the same clip execution on a big graduated table andintegrated bar and attention.These actions proved to be effectual because leading was involved. The influence of leaders at different degrees of society in each state the President/Prime Minister, the ministry functionaries, spiritual and community leaders, and so on was seen in the bringing of policy waies and plan intercessions harmonizing to the desired or articulated ends and aims.The above actions can be interpreted from the leading perspectives as shown in Figure 2.Figure 2. It Can Be Done Leadership PerspectiveCreate shared visionUganda Public recognition, political committedness.Senegal Political committedness, engagement of spiritual groups.Siam Engagement of Prime Minister/ Parliamentari ans and Provincial Governors.Align ValuessUganda Public recognition, political committedness.Senegal Political committedness, engagement of spiritual and many other groups including NGOs.Siam Removing stigma and favoritismCoordinate PracticesUganda Multi-sectoral attack, IEC, rubber societal selling and free distribution, Voluntary guidance and proving centre ( VCT ) .Senegal Schools, VCT, rubber for sex workers, national STI plan.Siam Engagement of provincial authorities and concerns.Leverage resourcesUganda Multi-sectoral attack, political committedness.Senegal National STI plans.Siam National and provincial authorities budget, concernTherefore, the success of policies and plans is reflected through leading actions of making a shared vision, alining values, organizing patterns and leveraging resources among the individuals/ families, communities and wellness system, as shown in figure 3 belowFigure 3. The Leadership position for superior consequencesAs the context alterations, th e leaders need to continually work on these actions to guarantee sustained advancement. The above mentioned early successes in HIV plans were non needfully sustained in go oning decrease in grownup prevalence of HIV infections. The HIV prevalence in Uganda had stabilized at between 6.5 % and 7 % since 2001. The grownup HIV prevalence remained low in Senegal at 2 % or under. On the other manus in Thailand, the rate of new HIV infections decreased by more than 25 % between 2001 and 2009. Current grownup HIV prevalence is estimated to be near to 1 % , a important diminution from a peak rate of about 2 % in 1995.

Saturday, May 25, 2019

Marketing Strategy of Nestle Essay

Executive Summary nestle foods was established in 1866. Since then it has continued to pop the question woodland crops to its customers with convergences and packaging innovations. nest juices is world wide number atomic number 53 and fastest growing food bon ton. The follow is trying their level best to class themselves from other local companies and trying to win the com dearieition in juice industry by adopting the modern trends and technologies in about(prenominal) operational fields as well as in grocerying of their harvest-feasts. In this detailed project we covered all(prenominal) most altogether the topics related to the commercializeing plan. First of all we presented the companies history and introduction which included the year of conformationation and certain steps the resulted in the todays form of nestle. We describes value chain analysis gadfly analysis close nestle juices and our unlikeiate competitor .And the next step we do experiment about SWO T analysis who its effect on our brand .so we described MARKET analysis, competitor analysis, analysis grease ones palmser behavior , hierarchy of organization goals and the next step to STP of nestle comp some(prenominal) ,so we explain product strategy , value strategy and distri onlyion strategy ,communication strategyand other things related to a marketing plan such as marketing cipher and last of our project sale forecast for last 5 year.. Innovative technology, , Globalization, Matrices, , Financial look backward, Porters five model, Industrial analysis, Five Ws and Future Plans Of Company.1. foundation garment1.1 Basic Information Regarding come onNestleis the largest food and nourishment company in the world, founded and headquartered in Vevey, Switzerland. Nestl originated in a 1905 merger of Anglo-Swiss Milk Company, established in 1867 by brothers George P season and Charles Page, and FarineL bitee Henri Nestl, founded in 1866 by Henri Nestl. The company grew signif i locoweedtly during the First founding War and following the Second World War, eventually expanding its offerings beyond its archean condensed milk and infant formula products. Today, the company operates in 86 countries well-nigh the world and employs nearly 283,000 hatful.AIMNestle (NESN.VX) is aiming for long- status organic growth of 10 percent in its nutrition unit. The aim of manufacturing Nestls product in global market impart be earning maximum hit at negligible cost and capture the maximum sh atomic number 18 of the market.GoalNestles goal is to manufacture and market the companys product in such a elan as to create value that give the sack be sustained over the long term for sh atomic number 18holders, employees, consumers and business partners. Nestle does not favour short term profit as the expense of successful long term business increasement.Market GrowthIn 2009, consolidated sales were CHF 107.6 billion and net profit was CHF 10.43 billion. Research and deve lopment investment was CHF 2.02 billion. Sales by activity breakdown 27% from drinks, 26% from dairy and food products, 18% from ready-prepared dishes and ready-cooked dishes, 12% fromumber, 11% from pet products, 6% from pharmaceutical products and 2% from baby milks. Sales by geographical area breakdown 32% from Europe, 31% from Americas (26% from US), 16% from Asia, 21% from rest of the world. design and IssuesTaking an objective approach to an issue means having due regard for the realizen valid state (relevant facts, logical implications and viewpoints and human purposes) pertaining to that issue. If relevant valid evidence is denied or falsified, an objective approach is impossible. An objective approach is particularly important in science, and in decision-making processes which affect large numbers of people.Capital issuesNestl S.A. has set up a youthful, wholly-owned subsidiary to manage the free radicals pension fund assets, which amounted to most CHF 25 billion at the end of 2005. From 1 January 2007, Nestl Capital Advisers, the modern Swiss- base company, will have a strategic advisory role and be a one-stop-shop for any services required by Nestl pension funds around the world. Nestl Capital Advisers CEO will be Jean-Pierre Steiner, who will also continue as Nestls corporate pension and risk director. Paul Polman, CFO of Nestl S.A., will serve as Chairman of the Board. In addition, Nestl Capital Advisers has established Nestl Capital Management, an operational asset management arm found in London, plentifuly veritable and regulated by the UK Financial Services Authority. Nestl Capital Management will start operations from 1 January 2007, with 15 investment managers and a compliance officer. This new Nestl asset management company will be able to provide cross-border investment and advisory services to any Nestl pension fund based in Europe or elsewhere. However, each individual Nestl pension fund will continue to be chthonian the respo nsibility of the relevant local trustee board. Nestls new, shared-services approach to Group pension fund management aims to lower costs and boost net asset performance while strengthening Nestl S.A.s overview of Group pension assets.Key of SuccessThe quality, low impairment charging and marketing strategy will be the reason ofworking behind to achieve success of Nestle. Nestle has to focus on the mind of buyer and consumers by which their selling rate. Nestle will be able to achieve maximum profit. Besides taking some extra strategies the company will be able to reduce its cost of the product.1.2 History Of NestleThe company dates to 1867, when two separate Swiss enterprises were founded that would later form the core of Nestl. In the succeeding decades the two competing enterprises aggressively expanded their businesses throughout Europe and the United States. In August 1867 Charles A and George Page, two brothers from Lee County, Illinois, ground forces established the Anglo-Sw iss Condensed Milk Company in Cham. Their first British operation was opened at Chippenham Wiltshire in 1873. In September 1867, in Vevey, Henri Nestl developed a milk-based baby food and soon began marketing it. The following year, 1868, saw Daniel Peter begin seven years of work perfecting his invention, the milk chocolate manufacturing process M. Nestls was the crucial cooperation M. Peter needed to solve the problem of removing all the water from the milk added to his chocolate and thus preventing the product from developing mildew. Henri Nestl retired in 1875, alone the company, under new ownership, retained his name as FarineLacte Henri Nestl. In 1877 Anglo-Swiss added milk-based baby foods to its products, and in the following year the Nestl Company added condensed milk, so that the planetary houses became direct and fierce rivals. In 1905 the companies merged to become the Nestl and Anglo-Swiss Condensed Milk Company, retaining that name until 1947, when the name Nestl Ali mentana SA was taken as a result of the acquisition of Fabrique de Produits Maggi SA (founded 1884) and its holding company, Alimentana SA of Kempttal, Switzerland. Maggi was a major manufacturer of dope up mixes and related foodstuffs. The companys current name was adopted in 1977. By the early 1900s, the company was operating factories in the United States, United Kingdom, Ger umteen and Spain. World War I created new demand for dairy products in the form of governance contracts by the end of the war, Nestls production had more than doubled. After the war, government contracts dried up and consumers switched back to fresh milk. However, Nestls management responded quickly, streamliningoperations and reducing debt. The 1920s saw Nestls first expansion into new products, with chocolate the companys second most important activity. Nestl felt the effects of World War II immediately. Profits dropped from US$20 million in 1938 to US$6 million in 1939. Factories were established in de veloping countries, particularly Latin America. Ironically, the war helped with the introduction of the companys newest product, Nescaf (Nestls java), which was a staple drink of the US military. Nestls production and sales rose in the wartime economy. The end of World War II was the beginning of a dynamic phase for Nestl. Growth accelerated and companies were acquired. In 1947 came the merger with Maggi seasonings and soups. Crosse & Blackwell followed in 1950, as did Findus (1963), Libbys (1971) and Stouffers (1973). Diversification came with a shareholding in LOral in 1974. In 1977, Nestl made its second venture outside the food industry by acquiring Alcon Laboratories Inc.In 1984, Nestls improved scum bag line allowed the company to launch a new round of acquisitions, notably American food giant Carnation and the British confectionery company Rowntree mack in 1988, which brought the Willy Wonka Brand to Nestl. The Brazilian president, Lula da Silva, inaugurates a factory in F eira de Santana (Bahia), in February of 2007. The first half of the 1990s proved to be favorable for Nestl cope barriers crumbled and world markets developed into more or less integrated trading areas. Since 1996 at that place have been acquisitions including San Pellegrino (1997), Spillers Petfoods (1998), and Ralston Purina (2002). in that location were two major acquisitions in North America, both in 2002 in June, Nestl merged its U.S. ice cream business into Dreyers, and in August a US$2.6 billion acquisition was announced of Chef America, the creator of impetuous Pockets. In the aforementioned(prenominal) time frame, Nestl came close to purchasing the iconic American company Hersheys, one of its fiercest confectionery competitors, though the deal fell through. Another recent procure included the Jenny Craig weight loss program for US$600 million. In December 2005, Nestl bought the Greek company Delta Ice Cream for 240 million. In January 2006, it took full ownership of D reyers, thus becoming the worlds biggest ice cream shamr with a 17.5% market share. In November 2006, Nestl purchased the Medical Nutrition division of Novartis pharmaceutical for $2.5B, also acquiring in2007 the milk flavouring product cognize as Ovaltine. In April 2007, returning to its roots, Nestl bought US baby-food manufacturer Gerber for $5.5 billion. In December 2007, Nestl entered in a strategic partnership with a Belgian chocolate maker Pierre Marcolini.8 Nestl agreed to sell its controlling stake in Alcon to Novartis on 4 January 2010. The sale was to form part of a broader US$39.3 billion offer, by Novartis, for full acquisition of the worlds largest eye-care company. On March 1, 2010, Nestl concluded the purchase of Krafts North American frozen pizza business for $3.7 billion.1.3 Situation AnalysisFirst of all nestle company want to know about the market situation. So the company collect information from the market.Market Description All most all of the country consu me the product of nestle. They are very careful about the quality and nutrition. there isalmost 6000 brand with a wide range of products. Like- they have Baby foods (Nestl Cerelac, NAN)Breakfast cereals (Nestl Cereals)Dairy products (Milkpak, NIDO, Nespray, Nestl Yogurts, Everyday) Ice-creams (Movenpick, Dreyers)Chocolate confectionary (Kit Kat, Smarties, Toffo)Beverages (Nescafe, Milo, Nestl juices) fodder service (Nestl Jumbo Bottle)Prepared foods (Maggi, office staffed Soups)Bottled water ( Nestl Pure Life, Nestl Aquarral)Pet care (Pro Plan, Purine, ONE, Fancy feast, Dog Chow, Cat Chow, Felix, Alpo) Pharmaceuticals (Ophthalmic drugs, lens-care solutions & optical surgical Instruments)Competitor ReviewUNILEVERNestles main international competitors include Unilever and Procter &Gamble. They also face competition in local markets or product ranges from companies such as Beiersdorf, ConAgra, Danone, everyday Mills, Henkel, Mars, Inc., Pepsico, Reckitt Benckiser and S. C. Johnson & Son.LANGNESELangnese is the German Heartbrand subsidiary of the Anglo-Dutch company Unilever. They are the number one producer of ice cream products in Germany, and their main competitor is Nestl a reflection of the sex act positions of these two giants in the global market.BRITANNIA INDUSTRIESBritannia Industries Limited is an Indian company based in Kolkata that is famous for its Britannia and Tiger brands of biscuit, which are popular throughout the country. Britannia is has an estimated 38% market share. The Companys principal activity is the manufacture and sale of biscuits, bread, Rusk, cakes and dairy products. Despite this strong competition, Nestle can carve out a clear image and gain recognition among the tar pass watered segments. The products what we are serving to our consumers is the critical point of variousiation for competitive advantage.2. Marketing naval division2.1Geographical SegmentationNestle is the worlds largest food company that did marketing segmentat ion very well. They also base on the geographic segmentation. Here they consider the world region, country region and folksy area.1) World or country region-Nestle understands the geographical different in needs and wants. For example in Viet Nam, Nestle has the Maggi brand with many kinds of Asia sauce, only if Maggi do not exist in England because of the different in the geographical taste. While, Nestle sell pet food in England and some other countries but they do not sell in Viet Nam. So we can easily understand that this company considers geographical segmentation. Maggi Sauce in Viet Nam2) Rural area Segmentation-Nestle also considers the rural area segmentation. For example, in the city supper shopsof Asia keeps Maggi /Nido milk and in rural areas nestle supplies a much less product deal Maggi or Nido milk.2.2Demographical SegmentationNestle segments their customer into the different of age, family size, family life cycle, income etc.1) Age-Nestle never offers the same pro duct for the people whose is 30 and whose age is 13. For example, nestle offers Nescafe coffee for adult people and offering Milo for children. Coffee for adult Milo for children2) Family Size and Life cycle-Nestle offers their same product in different size of containers to fulfill the different type of needs according to the size of the family. For example, Nestle chocolate offers different size of containers. The family with many members can buy the large container to satisfy everyone in the family, where a small family can take the small one to do the same.3) Income-The people with small income can buy nestle product. They produce that product which will save money. Like, Nescafe coffee has a mini pack for instant coffee which saves the money of limited income people.2.3Psychographic SegmentationNestle offers their product considering customers psychographic segment, like, social class, lifestyle and personality.1) Social class-Many products of nestle company are highly affordab le by different the people of different social class.2) Lifestyle and personality-Nestle Breakfast Cereals is the best choice for busy people and Nescafe also help them more alert in working. Besides, there are some people who love to eat can eat every time and everywhere. Confectionery such as Smartest, Aero, Butterfinger, and Orion can be called their best friends.2.4Behavioral SegmentationBehavioral segmentation base on the different in knowledge, attitudes or responses to a product.Benefits-Nestle offers us the best quality, taste and price for baby food, coffee and chocolate. Customers may buy other companies baby food/coffee/chocolate, but no other company can provide the quality and flavor that Nestle provides.Readiness stage-Nestle is one of the most well known company in the world. A very few people can found who dont know about this companies product. Nestle figure out the stage of their customer and make them more aware about their foods and nutrition.Attitude Toward prod uct-Nestle is alship canal concern about the attitude of people toward their product. The considers the feedback of their customers and the other people and make their product more better to get the positive opinion of their customers.User Status-A market has all types of customers. Nestle tries to measure user status to take more customers into their segment, so that all types of customer get opportunity to buy the product of Nestle. All the following criteria are followed by the Nestle Company for their segmentation.3. Market TargetingMarket segmentation reveals the firms market segment opportunities. It now must evaluate the various segments and decide how many and which segment it can serve best. We now look at how the company evaluate and fundament segments.Fig Porters Five Forces3.1.Right size and growth-Nestle company collets information about different type of customer from market segmentation. Then analyze to select a target market. They complete this task considering the size and growth of the target market. Nestle mostly focus on the geographic and demographic segmentation because, their product is made based on this two segments.3.2.Structural Attractiveness-Most of the companies have their similar competitors. Nestle also considers its competitors so that, they can attract their target market. They try to make a better product in a good price then their competitors. But now a days there no close competitor of nestle company. Nestle is also concern about the buyers power and the suppliers power. To achieve the target market Nestle need to satisfy the buyers as well as the suppliers. To avoid the bargaining problem that is created by the buyers, Nestle companies all products are at a wintry price. There is another problem of substitute product. But because of the high quality and affordability Nestle dont need to be worried about that problem.3.a. Selecting target marketAfter evaluating different segments, Nestle Company decides which and how many segment it will target. Buyers have unique need and want. So, nestle divided their products according to the different segments of market. Nestle company wants to use differentiated marketing strategy and the company decides to target several market segments and designs different offers for each segment. It decides to produce different types of products based on age, family life cycle, social class and lifestyle. Nestle tries to know what type of products are needed for which type of people. At first, nestle company produces a product for testing and experimenting for a specific segment and if it is wanted by the target market, it changes the product types.Nestle wants to offer some kind of product that is mainly based on demographic segmentation.No.Different consumerproduct1Age 6 months and onwardsCerelak, Nido, Nan2Coffee loversNescafe, Coffee Mate, 3 in 13Chocolate loversKitkat, Crunch, Galak4Age 8 years and onwardsMaggi, ptit pot5Age teenagersMilo, Aero, TurtlesThese are some o f the different types of products that Nestle Company offers for different types of customers. They offer these different types of product because there are different types of demand in the market.4. PositioningA company must differentiate its offers by building a unique bundle of benefits that appeal to a substantial group indoors the segment. Nestle knows this pretty well. It has many advantages over competitors by offering different types of quality products. To create a profitable relationship with the different types of customers, Nestle stays alert and finds different ways to differentiate itself in the eye of every customer. Marketers often prepare a perpetual positioning part to plan strategies. It shows consumer perceptions of their brands versus competing products onimportant buying dimensions. Nestle company always tries to maintain a better position in consumer minds than others.PriceNestleUnileverBritanniaLengneseBenefit4.1 Positioning MapThe figure below shows a posi tioning map for the worlds leading food brand-Nestle. The position for each circle of the map indicates the brands perceived positioning on two dimensions price and quality.4.2 Choosing Positioning StrategyIts very easy for Nestle to find its positioning strategy. Since its a very well known company, it tries to have the same position in a different segment. Nestle differentiates its offers by building a unique bundle of benefits which is appealing to a substantial group within a segment.Nestle follows three steps for its positioning taska) It identifies a set of possible competitive advantages to build a position.b) Then, it chooses the right competitive advantage.c) And selects an boilersuit positioning strategyAfter these steps, nestle communicates and delivers the chosen position to the market effectively.Identifying possible value difference and competitive advantageNestle understands the importance of mind customer needs better than the competitors and delivering more value. Its very important to build a profitable relationship with the customers. Nestle has positioned itself tothe extent of providing superior value, by this it has gained competitive advantage. But, solid position cant be built by false promises. Nestle delivers the quality and service it promises. Thus nestle has differentiated the company in the market.Nestle thinks through the customers entire experience with the company product to find the point of differentiation. It has successfully found ways to differentiate at every customers point of view.Nestls strategies for differentiation areServiceNestle wants to make sure that their service is better than other competitors. They print the nutritionary values and other health facts related to the product on the packet of the product. They also provide contact number and mailing addresses etc. for queries or any other facts. For example, in the image Nescafe Tasters Choice the arrow indicated area has all the information about this produ ct.Product Nestle provides the best products and they are quite confident about it. They know very well that they have a very few competitors which makes it easy for them to capture the market.Image Nestle knows that a company cannot develop an image in customary mind overnight using only a few advertisements. Nestle has a different image in public eye which it has earned over the years.People Their number of target people is very high because they have much demand for baby food and nutrition products.Positioning strategyFor a new product, firstly they decide to use more for less positioning strategy. Nestle gives more benefit than the other competitors but their price is low, because in this case, they can attract the customers easily.4.1Positioning strategyNestle company generally use more for more strategy. Compare to other company they are charging higher price than other. But on the other hand they not only charging higher price they are also provide benefit to the customer.4 .2 ontogeny a positioning statementIn positioning statement the summarization of company and brand positioning are followed. The concept is TO (Target segment and need) OUR (company) IS( product) THAT ( point of difference). By this way Nestle make positioning statement.PRICEMORE THE SAME LESSSFig Positioning StrategyDeveloping a positioning statementIn positioning statement the summarization of company and brand positioning are followed. The concept is TO ( Target segment and need) OUR (company) IS( product) THAT ( point of difference). By this way Nestle make positioning statement.Developing 4ps5.1ProductAll most all of the country consume the product of nestle. They are very careful about the quality and nutrition. There are almost 6000 brand with a wide range of products. Like 1. Baby food- Cerelak, NatureNes,nestum2. Cereals- Chocapic, Fitness, Cini Minis3. Water- Nestle Pure Life, Perrier, Poland Spring4. Dairy- Cornation, Coffee Mate, Nido5. Coffee- Nescafe 3-1, Nescafe Cla ssic, Nescafe Decaf6. Drinks- Milo, Juicy Juice, Nestea7. Sports nutrition- Power Bar8. Ice cream- Maxibone,Drumstick, Sorbetes9. Diet foods- Jenny Craig10. Healthcare nutrition- Boost, NutrenJunior,Resource11. Frozen foods- Buitoni, Herta, Hot Pocket, Maggi.12. Chocolate-Auro, Crunch, Kitkat, Butterfinger13. Pet care- Purina Alpo, Bakers Complete, Cat Chow5.2Pricepeople never wanted to compromise on quantity. So they adapted value based pricing. Nestle specially want to capture different segment of the market. So its price are based on its effective value of customer selective to their product. However its price is comparatively higher than the price of other product.5.3PlaceNestl began in Switzerland in the mid 1860s when founder Henri Nestl created one of the first baby formulas. Henri realized the need for a healthy and economical product to serve as an alternative for mothers who could not suck their babies. Mothers who were unable to breastfeed often lost their infants to mal nutrition. In 1874 the Nestl Company was purchased by Jules Monnerat. Nestl developed its own condensed milk to contend with its competitor, the Anglo-Swiss Condensed Milk Company.5.4PromotionPromotion is the very important and crucial section of marketing strategy as through it the company establishes its image in the minds of the customers. NPL is promoted by using different ways of promotion. Advertisement of NPL is done through TV, radio, billboards, newspapers and magazines. authorized advertising slogans are that NPL is trust, hope and happiness and Good Food Good life. Nestl also conducts the tradeshows, concerts, events sponsorships, and discounts for sales promotion. Forestablishing public relations, Nestl distributes its newsletters, annual reports, calendars and diaries, lobbying, donation for charitableand civic events. For the victims of 8th October 2005 earthquake, Nestl has donated 90 trucks, which were containing different foods items, and NPL was one of them which is around Rs. 2 Billion. The Nestle organized its teams to distribute products to the affected areas and all employees contributed from top to bottom.Example-Buy-One-Get-One-Free (BOGOF) if a loaf of bread is priced at $1, and cost 10 cents to manufacture, if you sell two for $1, you are still in profit especially if there is a corresponding increase in sales. This is known as a PREMIUM sales promotion tactic. Customer Relationship Management (CRM) -incentives such as bonus points or money off coupons. There are many examples of CRM, from banks to supermarkets. Free gifts- Subway gave away a card with six spaces for stickers with each sandwich purchase. Once the card was full the consumer was given a free sandwich. Free samples- Red Bull (a caffeinated fizzy drink) was given away to potential consumers at supermarkets, in high streets and at petrol stations (by a promotions team).ConclusionNestl is one of the only companies to have developed an information manifestationpolicy. B ut the policy includes no good practice principles. To strengthen their capabilities forensuring consistent public disclosure of information across the company Nestl should identifynarrowly defined conditions for non-disclosure and commit to responding to information requestswithin a defined period of time. In participation, Nestl only make a general lading to engagingwith those outside the company through their Corporate Business Principles. They should go furtherand develop a detailed policy on external stakeholder engagement that identifies the conditions underwhich stakeholder can wait to be engaged in company decision-making and commits toincorporating stakeholder input into decision-making else providing an explanation. Furthermore,Nestl needs to strengthen their complaints and response capabilities the company needs to put inplace a complaint mechanism that covers more than a single product and allows bothinternal andexternal stakeholder to submit complaints for issues of n on-compliance in relation to all the companyspolicies and practices.References1. Allied Stores was originally formed in 1929 to act a the groups purchasing arm.2. http// http// http// http// http// http// http// Newspaper10. Www. Google.com11. Friends

Friday, May 24, 2019

To Kill a Mockingbird – Character Notes

Mrs Dubose Pg. 119 ? physical description Mostly in chapter 11 Jem and Scout pass her house and she stirs them up about Atticus defending Tom Robinson. Jem ruins all camellia in her garden, and then both are forced to read to her. Morphine addict. Independent, strong willed, courageous, old fashioned, lonely, cantankerous, contrary, prejudice Helps Jem and Scout to discover real courage, pg. 124 Gained frugality ? important Fear and ignorance driven people to misunderstand Mrs. Dubose Mayella Ewell Pg. 197 ? physical description Fragile, confused, nervous, unintelligentAttended the court case, was raped by her dad, case was blamed on Tom Robinson. Pg. xcl 199 quotes on and about. auntie Alexandra Pg. 141 ? physical description Harsh, old fashioned, bossy, old, opinionated, honest, over powering, protective, strict She wanted to change Scout into a proper lady, determined to mould a better difference than Calpurnia. Created much problems than solutions. Didnt have respect for Ca lpurnia. Pg. 145, 140 ? quotes from Aunt Alexandra Chapter 12 ? Calpurnia took guidebook and jem to black church Chapter 24 ? Aunt Alexandra has tea party.Racism is displayed Calpurnia Pg. 6 ? physical description Key role is to give guidance to Scout and Jem, shows them the black community Strong willed, authoritive, responsible, wise, caring, understanding, smart, kind, protective Been with them ever since Jem was born, pg. 6 Pg. 32, 139, 138, Heck Tate Sheriff of Maycomb County Pg. 104 ? Physical description Over powering, tall, thin, wealthy, Chapter 10, mad dog shooting Has to arrest Tom, is involved in the court case, Heck Tate defends Jem and Boo from being accused of Bob Ewells death Pg. 300 304, quotes from Heck TateBob Ewell Pg. 147 ? physical description Involved in the trial against Tom Robinson, rapes his daughter, attacks Jem and Scout Arrogant man, human trash, disgrace, spends welfare money on alcohol, children go hungry, obnoxious, evil, violent, abusive, dirty, r ude, Pg. 189 192, quotes from court case Pg. 296 303, quotes from the attack Miss Rachel Finchs next door neighbor Good friends with Aunt Alexandra, often has tea at the Finchs house, helps scout to understand that Boo Radley is a nice person, Young, ladylike, mature, Dills aunty, Pg. 56, 220, 143, Scout FinchTomboy, always starts fights, rosy cheeks, dead black hair, dark brown eyes Independent, courageous, humorous, curious, stubborn, aggressive, short tempered Story is told by her point of view Scout saved Tom from being lynched Atticus Finch Lawyer, wise man, highly respected, father, widower, dry aesthesis of humour, sense of morally, one of the few citizens who believes in equality, compassionate, determined, generous, accepting, strong, caring, courageous, humble, calm, courteous, affectionate The one thing that doesnt abide by majority rule is a mans conscience.Jem Finch Pg. 227 ? four kinds of people in the world, Pg. 240 ? why they cant get along Pg. 13 ? talking to Dill Four years older than scout, matures throughout the novel, becomes more effected by events because of a deeper understanding, phases in and out of wanting to hang out with Scout, tries hard to protect scout although they fight. Adventurous, imaginative, courageous, caring, loving, righteous, loyal, charismatic, protective, Tall, skinny, dark haired, brown eyes, tries to keep his cool, immature.Miss Maudie kindred age as Aunt Alexandra, glasses, brown hair, seen as an elderly figure, spends a lot of time in the garden House burns down, Miss Maudie refuses to go to the trial because she believes they are like a Roman Carnival, great cake maker, supports Atticus ideas. Respected, strong willed, friendly, supportive, sharp-tongued, loyal, widowed, brave, idol of Scout Pg. 47 ? description

Thursday, May 23, 2019

Employee Motivation Essay

First and foremost, I want to thank , who has been my advisor and mentor throughout my studies, and served as the chair of my discourse committee. Without sirs patient criticism, continual support, effective teaching, and constant challenge and encouragement to give my very best efforts to my undertakings, I would non have learned what I needed to nor been prep bed to complete this dissertation and future live on.Much of what I have learned about the craft of research has come from Sir, and I am forever grateful for the opportunity to have studied under his guidance. I to a fault want to give thanks to my who has contributed immensely to my professional and personal teaching over the past two years. I would non have made it through this research without the support, encouragement, teaching, and friendship of fellow students in the program. CERTIFICATEThis is to certify that the dissertation tit conduct EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION IN HYDRABAD INDUSTRY LTD submitted by embodies the bonaf ied work done by her under supervision of I also declargon that this dissertation is a result of her effort and no part of this research has been published earlier or been submitted as a project by her for both degree or diploma for any institute or university.Today HIL is a multi intersection point, multi locational organization with a formid open network of branches, depots, stockiest and personnel spread all over India. HIL macrocosm backed by the organizational and practiced expertise of the Birlas, also has a Board of directors comprising experienced personnel from Business, Finance and Industry. The Board is chaired by Mr. C. K. Birla. HILs carrefour range include part Cement roof sheets in the name of CHARMINAR and MALABAR, Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Blocks and Panels called AEROCON, Calcium Silicate insulation product called HYSIL, Jointing material for Gaskets and Plant and machinery for these products.The Hyderabad industries LIMITED, Thrissur is find 10 km away fr om the Thrissur town. The exact place where the company is situated is Athani, which is an industrial atomic number 18a. This company was incorporated in the year 1985 and commenced production in 1986 in the name as MALABAR BUILDING PRODUCTS, which was a joint venture by HIL and KSIDC (Kerala State Industries Development Corporation. Later in the year 2005 April the company was merged with the HIL all in all from the KSIDC. And in the very(prenominal) year the company changed its name to HYDRABAD INDUSTRIES LIMITED. About 200 employees be working in HIL, Thrissur as a strong. In that 110 employees are working in plant, 72 are office staffs and 18 are bargaining staffs.The plant is working for 24 hours and there are three shifts per day. The whole plant is completely automated. The HIL Thrissur plant is producing only the AC roofing sheets in the name of CHARMINAR. Charminar AC Roofing Sheets have been the No. 1 roofing sheets of pick for more than 50 years now, providing roof ing to millions of low terms ho usances and to industries, commercial communication channeles and for several everyday utilities. Charminar sheets are widely feeln for their superior superior and durability. The vulgar materials employ in the production process are Fibre, fly ash, rag pulp and cement. Among these raw(prenominal) materials Fibre is importing from Brazil and Canada and cement is mainly bought from ACC cements.The beau monde mainly sells their products through dealers who are selected by the company. The finished products are mainly sold in the south India, especially in Tamil Nadu. The company has a visionary management and motivated team up of dynamic workers sharing common vision and working in the union. The company is moving ahead with to innovate and result excellent production. HIL is providing to have an operational efficiency compactable with global standards. As a socially organization, it has contributed signifi sack uptly towards eco-friendliness and various social causes. The company has involved in conducting a lot of community welfare programme. In this year the company conducted a welfare programme named SOUHRUTHAM 2008.Mission and Vision of Hyderabad Industries Limited To maintain leadership in Fibre cement products industry and dilate complementary products and run to strengthen the core business of edifice products. Fulfilment of market need with cost effective solutions for enduring and enhanced client satisfaction. Striving for excellence in all the area of companys operation. Innovative solutions to create world class products and services fostering collective wisdom and commitment of employees to create corporate and chemical group culture and values which they are proud to be part of. Maintain impartial balance between development and environmental call for of the society. Quality insurance policyProvide products and services that adequately and consistently meet specified and set ineluctably of cu stomers by ? Continues upgrade of product value and by ? Building customer responsive environment ? In making and ram homeance of the products and services explore & Development. look and Development Centre ofHyderabad Industries Limited is fully equipped with latest state-of-art technology, equipment and test facilities including Pilot Plants situated in ultra modern spacious building blanket an area of about 11000 sft of main Building and about 16000 sft area of Pilot Plant. HIL, R & D centre is recognized by discourse section of Science and technology Government of India.HIL have been conferred with the DSIR National Award for R & D efforts in industry for the year 2000 in the area of new materials for AEROCON INSTA PANEL Dedicated team of scientists and engineers are constantly working for product up gradation, optimum manipulation of raw materials, development of substitute materials, new products and new product applications, saving unquestionable amount of foreign ex change for the country. The R & D Division has contributed in the following specific areas Identification and development of environment friendly building products with uphill market postulate. Emphasis on process optimization, cost reduction and development of value added products. Effective usage of energy, water and waste material. Absorption of imported technical know-how. Development of new products i. e. Aerocon Insta Panels, Access Flooring form, pressed sheets, fire protection boards, Light weight AAC Blocks, non-asbestos jointing material for automobile industry etc. Quality Policy Provide products and services that adequately and consistently meet specified and identified needs of customers by ? Continues upgrade of product value and by ? Building customer responsive environment ? In making and deliverance of the products and services Philosophy HYDERABAD INDUSTRIES LIMITED is committed to good Corporate Governance. The Company has been following good principles o f business over the years by following all the laws and regulations of the land with an emphasis on accountability, trusteeship, and integrity.It is our responsibility to ensure that the organization is managed in a manner that protects and furthers the interests of our stakeholders. industrial PROFILE Asbestosis a group of tapralswith long, thin fibrouscrystals. The word asbestos is derived from aGreekadjective meaning i nearinguishable. TheGreekstermed asbestos the miracle mineral because of its soft and pliant properties, as hale up as its ability to withstand heat. Asbestos became increasingly popular among manufacturers and builders in the late 19th century due to its resistance to heat, electricity and chemical damage, its sound assiduousness and tensile strength. When asbestos is employ for its resistance to fire or heat, the fibers are ofttimes mixed with cementor woven into fabric or mats.Asbestos was utilise in just about products for its heat resistance, and in the past was used on electric oven and naughtyplate wiring for itselectrical insulationat elevated temperature, and in buildings for its noncombustibleand insulating properties,tensile strength, flexibility, and resistance to chemicals. The main product ASBESTOS CEMENT SHEET is primarily a cement based product were about 10-15% asbestos fiber is needed to reenforce the cement is weather proof, even through it absorbs moisture, the water entrust not pass through the product. Asbestos cement is used for corrugated sheets, slates, flat sheet for tool pens, cladding molded fitting, water system rain water gutters, down pipes, under ground pipes and sewer pipes, skills, chalkboards. Most of the asbestos consumed globally is chrysolite. Russia, Kazakhstan is major producers of asbestos.The studies across the macrocosm had not found any increased risk of carrier to the workers even at the trains of fiber/cubic centimeter, whereas the Indian chrysolite cement industry works well bellow 0. 5 fiber/cubic centimeter. Historic usage Asbestos was named by the ancient Greeks who also recognized certain hazards of the material. The Greek geographerStraboand the Roman naturalistPliny the eldernoted that the material damaged lungs of slaves who wove it into cloth. Charlemagne, the eldestHoly Roman Emperor, is said to have had a tablecloth made of asbestos. WealthyPersians, who bought asbestos imported over theHindu Kush, stupid(p) guests by cleaning the cloth by simply exposing it to fire.According toBiruniin his book ofGems, any cloths made of asbestos were called shastakeh. Some of the Persians believed the fiber was fur from an animal namedsamandar that lived in fire and died when exposed to water. Some archeologists believe that ancients made shrouds of asbestos, wherein they burned the bodies of their kings, in assure to preserve only their ashes, and prevent their being mixed with those of wood or some other combustible materials commonly used in funeral pyres. Ot hers assert that the ancients used asbestos to make perpetual wicks forsepulchralor other lamps. In more upstart centuries, asbestos was indeed used for this purpose.Although asbestos causes skin to itch upon contact,ancient writingsindicates that it was prescribed for diseases of the skin, and particularly for the itch. It is possible that they used the termasbestosforalumen plumosum, because the two terms have often been confused throughout history. Asbestos became more widespread during the industrial revolution in the 1860s it was used as insulation in the U. S. and Canada. Development of the first commercial asbestos mine began in 1879 in theAppalachianfoothills ofQuebec. By the mid 20th century uses included fire retardant coatings, concrete, bricks, pipes and fireplace cement, heat, fire, and acid resistant gaskets, pipe insulation, detonator insulation, fireproof drywall, flooring, roofing, lawn furniture, and drywall joint compound.Approximately 100,000 people in the Uni ted States have died, or leave alone die, from asbestos exposure related to ship building. In theHampton Roadsarea, a shipbuilding center,mesothelioma occurrence is seven times the national rate. Thousands of metric tons of asbestos were used inWorld War IIships to wrap the pipes, line the boilers, and counterbalance engine and turbine parts. There were approximately 4. 3 million shipyard workers in the United States during WWII for every thousand workers about fourteen died of mesothelioma and an unknown number died from asbestosis. Asbestos fibers were once used in automobilebrake padsand shoes. Since the mid-1990s, a majority of brake pads, new or replacement, have been anufactured instead with linings made of ceramic, carbon, metallic andAramid fiber(TwaronorKevlarthe same material used inbullet-proof vests). Kent, the firstfiltered cigaretteon the market, used crocidolite asbestos in its Micronite filter from 1952 to 1956. The first documented death related to asbestos was in 1906. In the early 1900s researchers began to notice a large number of early deaths and lung problems in asbestos mining towns. The first diagnosis ofasbestosiswas made in England in 1924. By the 1930s, England correct ventilation and made asbestosis an excusable work related disease, about ten years sooner than the U. S. The termMesotheliomawas not used in medical literature until 1931, and was not associated with asbestos until sometime in the 1940s.The United States government and asbestos industry have been criticized for not acting quickly enough to inform the everyday of dangers, and to swerve public exposure. In the late 1970s court documents proved that asbestos industry officials knew of asbestos dangers and tried to conceal them. In Japan, particularly afterWorld War II, asbestos was used in the manufacture ofammonium sulphatefor purposes of rice production, sprayed upon the ceilings, iron skeletons, and walls of railroad cars and buildings (during the 1960s), and used for energy efficiency reasons as well. Production of asbestos in Japan peaked in 1974 and went through ups and downs until about 1990, when production began to drop severely.Commercially available roofing materials The weather proofing material is the topmost or outermost layer, exposed to the weather. Many unlike kinds of materials have been used as weather proofing material Thatchis roofing made of plant stalks in imbrication layers. WheatStraw, widely used in England, France and other parts of Europe. Sea grass, used in coastal areas where there areestuariessuch as Scotland. Has a longer life than straw. Claimed to have a life in excess of 60 years. Shingles, calledshakesin North America. Shinglesis the generic term for a roofing material that is in many overlapping sections, regardless of the nature of the material.The word is also used specifically to denote shingles made of wood. Red cedar. Life expectancy, up to 30 years. However, young ontogeny red cedar has a short life expectancy. noble cost. Should be allowed to breathe. Hardwood. Very durable roofing found in ColonialAustralian architecture, its use now limited torestorations. Slate. High cost with a life expectancy of up to 200 years. Slate cleaves into thin sheets, making it much lighter than concrete tiles, though heavier than sheet steel and other light roof coverings. Stone slab. Heavy stone slabs (not to be confused with slate) 1-2 thick were formerly used as roofing tiles in some regions in England.Stone slabs require a very heavyweight roof structure, but their weight makes them storm proof. An antiquated roofing material. Ceramictile. High cost, life of more then 100 years. Imbrex and tegula, style dating back to ancient Greece and Rome. Metal shakes or shingles. Long life. High cost, suitable for roofs of 3/12 pitch or greater. Because of the flexibility of metal, they can be manufactured to lock together, giving durability and reducing assembly time. automatically seame d metal. Long life. High cost, suitable for roofs of low pitch such as 0. 5/12 to 3/12 pitch. Concrete, usually reinforced with fibres of some sort. Concrete tiles require a stronger roof structure than slate, as some owners have found to their cost. Asphalt shingle, made of bitumen embedded in an organic or fiberglass mat, usually covered with colored, man-made ceramic grit. Cheaper than slate or tiles. Various life span expectancies. Asbestosshingles. Very long lifespan, fireproof and low cost but now rarely used because of health concerns. Membrane. Membrane roofing is in large sheets, generally fused in some way at the joints to form a continuous surface. Thermosetting plastic(e. g. EPDM rubber). Synthetic rubber sheets adhered together with contact adhesive or tape. native application is big boxful store with large open areas and little vertical protrusions. Thermoplastic(e. g. PVC,TPO,CSPE).Plastic sheets welded together with hot air creating one continuous sheet membra ne. Can be rewelded with the exception of CSPE. Lends itself well to both big box and small roof application because of its hot air weld ability. Modifiedbitumen heat welded, asphalt adhered or installed with adhesive. Asphalt is mixed with polymers such as APP or SBS, then applied to fiberglass and/or polyester mat, seams sealed by locally melting the asphalt with heat, hot mopping of asphalt, or adhesive. Lends itself well to all applications. Built-Up Roof Multiple plies of asphalt saturated organic felt or coat fiberglass felts. Plies of felt are adhered with hot asphalt, coal tar pitch or adhesive. Sprayed-in-Place Polyurethane Foam (SPUF) Foam sprayed in-place on the roof, and then coated with a wide variety of coatings, or in some instances, covered with gravel. Fabric Polyester. PTFE (synthetic Fluor polymer) embedded infibre glass. Metal roofing. Generally a relatively inexpensive building material, unless pig bedis used. Galvanized steelfrequently manufactured wit h wavy corrugations to resist lateral flexing and fitted with exposed fasteners. Widely used for low cost and durability. Sheds are normally roofed with this material. cognize asGal iron, it was the most extensively used roofing material of 20th century Australia, now replaced in popularity by steel roofing coated with an alloy of zinc and aluminum, claimed to have up to four times the life of galvanized steel. Standing-seam metal with concealed fasteners. Mechanically seamed metal with concealed fasteners contains sealant in seams for use on very low sloped roofs. Flat-seam metal with soldered seams. candy Clear windows have been used since the invention of glass to cover small openings in a building. They provided humans with the ability to both let light into rooms while at the same time keeping inclement weather outside. scum is generally made from mixtures of sand and silicates, and is very brittle. Modern glass curtain walls can be used to cover the entire facade of a bu ilding. Glass can also be used to span over a wide roof structure in a space frame. Ceramics, these are such things as tiles, fixtures, etc. Ceramics are mostly used as fixtures or coverings in buildings. Ceramic floors, walls, counter-tops, even ceilings. Many countries use ceramic roofing tiles to cover many buildings. Ceramics used to be just a specialized form of clay-pottery firing in kilns, but it has evolved into more technical areas. Foam to a greater extent recently synthetic polystyrene or polyurethane foam has been used on a limited scale. It is light weight, substantially shaped and an excellent insulator. It is usually used as part of a structural insulated panel where the foam is sandwiched between wood or cement. Department Profile The organization has mainly 5 departments.They are 1. HUMAN RESOURCE DEPARTMENT 2. FINANCE DEPARTMENT 3. PURCHASE DEPARTMENT 4. MARKETING DEPARTMENT. 5. PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT Organization chart of Human Resource Department pic The managin g human resource in the organization is an Copernican lying-in. Human resource department is doing the management of human resource in the organization. Hyderabad Industries Limited follows a system in HR department that each authority coming under the General Manager (works) has to report directly to General Manager (Works) in the hierarchy. This testament helps to speed up the communication flow in the organization. ORGANISATION map OF FINANCE DEPARTMENTSound financial decisions have been one of the critical practices in the success of Hyderabad Industries Limited, Thrissur proper planning and long vision of the financial managers help the company to undergo to smooth sail. All monetary transactions of the company are handled and brought to account by the finance department. ORGANISATION CHART OF PURCAHSE DEPARTMENT The purchase manager is the only person who is the having the prime authority to make orders for the purchase of raw materials. After referring the stock report of raw materials and finished goods, the purchase manager purchase the raw- materials in order to ensure the continuous flow of production.ORGANISATION CHART OF PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT The production manager and his team are responsible for realizing the visions of the company within constraints of technical possibility. This involves coordinating the operations of various production activities and maintains a good flow of work without any blockage. ORGANISATION CHART OF MARKETING DEPARTMEN Product Profile Charminar Aerocon panels. Charminar Aerocon Panel is a unique factory developed product that fulfills the following Green Building concept. Raw material contains up to 40% Fly Ash (recycled power plant waste). Excellent Thermal and Sound Insulation. A good fire rating up to 2 hrs. -Depending upon thickness. Factory cured panel -Dry construction at site. Completely re-locatable. Proven suitable for seismic and cyclone given over zones Other Benefits Fast track construction -Tong ue and groove joining system allows faster construction. Light weight -allows easy handling and erection. Excellent water & white ant resistance. Can be given any surface finish Applications Charminar Roofing Sheets are an ideal building material for roofing and side-cladding in Industrial/ situation Plant Cladding Control Room Prefabricated site offices Prefabricated Houses, Canteens and Rest Rooms Partitions Police Stations School Buildings Telephone Exchanges ATM Cubicles Charminar AC roofing Sheets. Charminar AC Roofing Sheets have been the No. 1 roofing sheets of choice for more than 50 years now. Providing roofing to millions of low cost houses and to industries, commercial businesses and for several public utilities. Charminar sheets are widely known for their superior quality and durability. Special Features Strong & durable Weather-proof Less noise during rains Non-corrosive Charminar Concreted Roofing Sheets are made from Fibre, Portland cement and Binder. Fibre in these sheets acts as reinforcement like steel in RCC. These are owing to their quality, strength & durability.These are manufactured to exceed the requirements of strength specified in the relevant Indian standards. Standards IS 459-1992 Specification for Corrugated and Semi-Corrugated Asbestos Cement Sheets. IS 3007 1999 Code of practice for laying of Asbestos Cement Sheets, Part-I, Corrugated Sheets. IS 1626 (Part3) 1994 Roofing fittings. Applications Charminar Roofing Sheets are an ideal building material for roofing and side-cladding in Industrial buildings of all types Food Storage Go downs Warehouses & Cold Storages Poultry farms, dairy farms and other agricultural sheds Garages, Verandahs and Outhouses Houses School buildings popular Utility Sheds Cooling Towers Cinema Halls Stadiums Railway & Bus Stations CHAPTER-2 INTRODUCTION TO EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION INTRODUCTIONThe project work entitled a reflect on employee penury with special reference to Hyderabad Industries Ltd Thrissur is mainly conducted to identify the factors which pass on motivate the employees and the organizational ranges in Hyderabad Industries Ltd, Thrissur. Managements basic chisel is the effective utilization of human resources for procurements of organizational objectives. The personnel management is concerned with organizing human resources in such a way to get maximum output to the enterprise and to develop the talent of people at work to the fullest satisfaction. motif implies that one person, in organization context a manager, includes another, say an employee, to engage in action by ensuring that a channel to satisfy those needs and aspirations becomes available to the person.In addition to this, the strong needs in a direction that is satisfying to the latent needs in employees and harness them in a manner that would be functional for the organization. Employee demand is one of the major issues faced by every organization. It is the major task of every manager to motivate his assistants or to create the give to work among the subordinates. It should also be remembered that a worker may be immensely dependent of doing some work nothing can be achieved if he is not allowing to work. A manager has to make appropriate use of motivation to enthuse the employees to follow them. Hence this studies also direction on the employee motivation among the employees of Hyderabad Industries Ltd.The data needed for the study has been collected from the employees through questionnaires and through direct interviews. Analysis and variant has been done by using the statistical tools and datas are presented through tables and charts. RESEARCH PROBLEM The research problem here in this study is associated with the motivation of employees of Hyderabad Industries Limited, Thrissur. There are a variety of factors that can influence a persons take aim of motivation some of these factors include 1. The level of pay and benefits, 2. The perceived fairness of promotion system within a company, 3. Quality of the working conditions, 4. Leadership and social relationships, 5.Employee information 6. Job security 7. biography development opportunities etc. Motivated employees are a great asset to any organisation. It is because the motivation and Job satisfaction is clearly linked. Hence this study is focusing on the employee motivation in the organisation. The research problem is formulated as follows literature Review Rensis Likerthas called motivation as the core of management. motif is the core of management. indigence is an effective instrument in the hands of the management in inspiring the work force . It is the major task of every manager to motivate his subordinate or to create the will to work among the subordinates .It should also be remembered that the worker may be immensely capable of doing some work, nothing can be achieved if he is not willing to work . creation of a will to work is motivation in simpl e but true sense of term. Motivation is an important function which very manager performs for actuating the people to work for accomplishment of objectives of the organization . Issuance of well conceived instructions and orders does not mean that they will be followed . A manager has to make appropriate use of motivation to enthuse the employees to follow them. Effective motivation succeeds not only in having an order accepted but also in gaining a determination to see that it is executed efficiently and effectively.In order to motivate workers to work for the organizational goals, the managers must(prenominal) determine the motives or needs of the workers and provide an environment in which appropriate incentives are available for their satisfaction . If the management is successful in doing so it will also be successful in increasing the willingness of the workers to work. This will increase efficiency and effectiveness of the organization . There will be punter utilization of resources and workers abilities and capacities. The concept of motivation The word motivation has been derived from motive which federal agency any idea, need or emotion that prompts a man in to action. Whatever may be the behavior of man, there is some stimulus behind it . Stimulus is dependent upon the motive of the person concerned. Motive can be known by studying his needs and likings.There is no universal possibility that can explain the factors influencing motives which control mans behavior at any particular point of time. In general, the different motives operate at different times among different people and influence their behaviors. The process of motivation studies the motives of individuals which cause different type of behavior. 2. 2 translation of Motivation. According to Edwin B Flippo, Motivation is the process of attempting to influence others to do their work through the possibility of gain or reward. 2. 3 Significance of Motivation Motivation involves getting t he members of the group to pull weight effectively, to give their loyalty to the group, to carry out properly the purpose of the organization.The following results may be expected if the employees are properly motivated. 1. The workforce will be better satisfied if the management provides them with opportunities to fulfill their physiological and psychological needs. The workers will cooperate voluntarily with the management and will contribute their maximum towards the goals of the enterprise. 2. Workers will tend to be as efficient as possible by improving upon their skills and knowledge so that they are able to contribute to the progress of the organization. This will also result in increased productivity. 3. The rates of labors turnover and absenteeism among the workers will be low. 4.There will be good human relations in the organization as friction among the workers themselves and between the workers and the management will decrease. 5. The number of complaints and grievances will come down. incident will also be low. 6. There will be increase in the quantity and quality of products. Wastage and scrap will be less. Better quality of products will also increase the public image of the business. 2. 4 Motivation Process. 1. Identification of need 2. Tension 3. Course of action 4. Result Positive/ detrimental 5. Feed back 2. 5 Theories of Motivation. Understanding what motivated employees and how they were motivated was the focus of many researchers following the publication of the Hawthorne study results (Terpstra, 1979).Six major approaches that have led to our understanding of motivation are Mcclellands Achievement Need Theory, Behavior Modification theory Abraham H Mallows need hierarchy or Deficient theory of motivation. J. S. Adams Equity Theory, Vrooms forethought Theory, Two factor Theory. McClellands Achievement Need Theory. According to McClellands there are three types of needs Need for Achievement (n Ach) This need is the strongest and lasting motivating factor. Particularly in case of persons who satisfy the other needs. They are constantly pre occupied with a desire for improvement and lack for situation in which successful outcomes are directly correlated with their efforts.They set more difficult but achievable goals for themselves because success with easily achievable goals hardly provides a sense of achievement. Need for Power (n Pow) It is the desire to control the behavior of the other people and to manipulate the surroundings. Power motivations positive applications results in domestic leadership style, while it blackball application tends autocratic style. Need for affiliation (n Aff) It is the related to social needs and creates friendship. This results in composition of informal groups or social circle. Behavioral Modification Theory According to this theory people behavior is the outcome of favorable and unfavorable past circumstances. This theory is based on learning theory. Skinner conducted his research es among rats and school children.He found that stimulus for desirable behavior could be strengthened by rewarding it at the earliest. In the industrial situation, this relevance of this theory may be found in the installation of financial and non financial incentives. More immediate is the reward and stimulation or it motivates it. masturbation of reward incase of low standard work may also produce the sought after result. However, researches show that it is generally more effective to reward desired behavior than to punish undesired behavior. Abraham H Maslow Need pecking order or Deficient theory of Motivation. The intellectual basis for most of motivation thinking has been provided by behavioral scientists, A.H Maslow and Frederick Heizberg, whose published works are the Bible of Motivation. Although Maslow himself did not apply his theory to industrial situation, it has wide impact for beyond academic circles. Douglous Mac Gregor has used Maslows theory to interpret specific problems in personnel administration and industrial relations. The crux of Maslows theory is that human needs are arranged in hierarchy composed of five categories. The lowest level needs are physiological and the highest levels are the self actualization needs. Maslow starts with the formation that man is a wanting animal with a hierarchy of needs of which some are refuse ins scale and some are in a higher scale or system of values.As the lower needs are satisfied, higher needs emerge. Higher needs cannot be satisfied unless lower needs are fulfilled. A satisfied need is not a motivator. This resembles the standard economic theory of diminishing returns. The hierarchy of needs at work in the individual is today a routine tool of personnel trade and when these needs are active, they act as powerful conditioners of behavior- as Motivators. Hierarchy of needs the main needs of men are five. They are physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, ego needs and self actualization ne eds, as shown in order of their importance. Fig (2. 1) The above five basic needs are regarded as striving needs which make a person do things.The first model indicates the ranking of different needs. The second is more helpful in indicating how the satisfaction of the higher needs is based on the satisfaction of lower needs. It also shows how the number of person who has experienced the fulfillment of the higher needs gradually tapers off. Physiological or Body Needs The individual move up the go responding first to the physiological needs for nourishment, clothing and shelter. These physical needs must be equated with pay rate, pay practices and to an extent with physical condition of the job. Safety The next in order of needs is safety needs, the need to be free from danger, either from other people or from environment.The individual want to assured, once his material needs are satisfied, that they are secure and will continue to be satisfied for foreseeable feature. The safe ty needs may take the form of job security, security against disease, misfortune, old age etc as also against industrial injury. Such needs are generally met by safety laws, measure of social security, prophylactic labor laws and collective agreements. Social needs Going up the scale of needs the individual feels the desire to work in a cohesive group and develop a sense of belonging and identification with a group. He feels the need to love and be loved and the need to belong and be identified with a group.In a large organization it is not easy to build up social relations. However close relationship can be built up with at least some fellow workers. Every employee wants too feel that he is wanted or accepted and that he is not an alien facing a hostile group. Ego or Esteem Needs These needs are reflected in our desire for status and recognition, enjoy and prestige in the work group or work place such as is conferred by the recognition of ones merit by promotion, by participati on in management and by fulfillment of workers urge for self expression. Some of the needs relate to ones esteem e. g. need for achievement, self confidence, knowledge, competence etc.On the job, this means praise for a job but more important it means a feeling by employee that at all times he has the respect of his supervisor as a person and as a contributor to the organizational goals. Self realization or Actualization needs This upper level need is one which when satisfied provide insights to support future research regarding strategic guidance for organization that are both providing and using reward/recognition programs makes the employee give up the dependence on others or on the environment. He becomes growth oriented, self oriented, directed, detached and creative. This need reflects a state defined in terms of the extent to which an individual attains his personnel goal.This is the need which totally lies within oneself and there is no demand from any external situation o r person. J. S Adams Equity Theory Employee compares her/his job inputs outcome ratio with that of reference. If the employee perceives inequity, she/he will act to correct the inequity lower productivity, reduced quality, increased absenteeism, voluntary resignation. Vrooms Expectation Theory Vrooms theory is based on the belief that employee effort will lead to performance and performance will lead to rewards (Vroom, 1964). reinforce may be either positive or negative. The more positive the reward the more likely the employee will be highly motivated.Conversely, the more negative the reward the less likely the employee will be motivated. Two Factor Theory Douglas McGregor introduced the theory with the help of two views X assumptions are conservative in style Assumptions are modern in style. X Theory Individuals inherently dislike work. People must be coerced or controlled to do work to achieve the objectives. People prefer to be directed Y Theory People view work as being as natural as wreak and rest People will exercise self direction and control towards achieving objectives they are committed to People learn to accept and seek responsibility. 2. 6 Types of Motivation. inseparable motivation occurs when people are essentially motivated to do something because it either brings them pleasure, they think it is important, or they feel that what they are learning is morally significant. Extrinsic motivation comes into play when a student is compelled to do something or act a certain way because of factors external to him or her (like money or good grades) 2. 7 Incentives An incentive is something which stimulates a person towards some goal. It activates human needs and creates the desire to work. Thus, an incentive is a means of motivation. In organizations, increase in incentive leads to better performance and vice versa. Need for Incentives Man is a wanting animal.He continues to want something or other. He is never fully satisfied. If one need is sa tisfied, the other need need arises. In order to motivate the employees, the management should try to satisfy their needs. For this purpose, both financial and non financial incentives may be used by the management to motivate the workers. Financial incentives or motivators are those which are associated with money. They include wages and salaries, fringe benefits, bonus, retirement benefits etc. Non financial motivators are those which are not associated with monetary rewards. They include intangible incentives like ego-satisfaction, self-actualization and responsibility. INCENTIVESFinancial Incentives Non-financial incentives Wages and Salaries. Competition Bonus Group recognition Medical reimbursement Job security Insurance value Housing facility Knowledge of result Retirement benefits. Workers participation. Suggestion system. Opportunities for growth 2. 8 Motivation is the key to performance improvementThere is an old axiom you can take a horse to the water but you cannot force it to drink it will drink only if its thirsty so with people. They will do what they want to do or otherwise motivated to do. Whether it is to excel on the workshop floor or in the ivory tower they must be motivated or driven to it, either by themselves or through external stimulus. Are they born with the self-motivation or drive? Yes and no. If no, they can be motivated, for motivation is a skill which can and must be learnt. This is essential for any business to survive and succeed. Performance is considered to be a function of ability and motivation, thus Job performance =f(ability)(motivation)Ability in turn depends on education, experience and training and its improvement is a slow and long process. On the other hand motivation can be improved quickly. There are many options and an uninitiated manager may not even know where to start. As a guideline, there are broadly seven strategies for motivation. There are broadly seven strategies for motivation. Positiv e reinforcement / high expectations Effective straighten out and punishment Treating people fairly Satisfying employees needs Setting work related goals Restructuring jobs Base rewards on job performance Essentially, there is a bedcover between an individuals actual state and some desired state and the manager tries to reduce this gap.Motivation is, in effect, a means to reduce and manipulate this gap. CHAPTER-3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY SCOPE OF THE STUDY The study is intended to evaluate motivation of employees in the organization. A good motivational program affair is essential to achieve goal of the organization.If efficient motivational programmes of employees are made not only in this particular organization but also any other organization the organizations can achieve the efficiency also to develop a good organizational culture. Motivation has variety of effects. These effects may be seen in the context of an individuals physical and mental health, productivity, absent eeism and turnover. Employee delight has to be managed in more than one way. This helps in retaining and nurturing the true believers who can deliver value to the organization. Proliferating and nurturing the number of true believers 1is the challenge for future and present HR managers. This means innovation and creativity. It also means a change in the tilt for HR polices and practices.The faster the organizations nurture their employees, the more successful they will be. The challenge before HR managers today is to delight their employees and nurture their creativity to keep them a bloom. This study helps the researcher to realize the importance of effective employee motivation. This research study examines types and levels of employee motivational programmes and also discusses management ideas that can be utilized to innovate employee motivation. It helps to provide insights to support future research regarding strategic guidance for organizations that are both providing and usi ng reward/recognition programs Objectives of the study Primary objective 1.To study the important factors which are needed to motivate the employees. Secondary Objective. 1. To study the effect of monetary and non-monetary benefits provided by the organization on the employees performance. 2. To study the effect of job promotions on employees. 3. To learn the employees satisfaction on the interpersonal relationship exists in the organization. To provide the practical suggestion for the improvement of organizations performance Research methodology. Research is a systematic method of finding solutions to problems. It is essentially an investigation, a recording and an analysis of evidence for the purpose of gaining knowledge.According to Clifford woody, research comprises of defining and redefining problem, formulating surmisal or suggested solutions, collecting, organizing and evaluating data, reaching conclusions, testing conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulated hyp othesis2 Sampling Design. A sample design is a finite plan for obtaining a sample from a given population. Simple random sample distribution is used for this study. Universe. The universe chooses for the research study is the employees of Hyderabad Industries Ltd. Sample Size. Number of the sampling units selected from the population is called the size of it of the sample. Sample of 50 respondents were obtained from the population. Sampling Procedure.The procedure adopted in the present study is probability sampling, which is also known as chance sampling. Under this sampling design, every item of the frame has an equal chance of inclusion in the sample. Methods of Data Collection. The datas were collected through Primary and secondary sources. 1. Primary Sources. Primary data are in the form of raw material to which statistical methods are applied for the purpose of analysis and interpretations. The primary sources are sermon with employees, datas collected through questionnaire. 2. Secondary Sources. Secondary datas are in the form of finished products as they have already been treated statistically in some form or other.The secondary data mainly consists of data and information collected from records, company websites and also discussion with the management of the organization. Secondary data was also collected from journals, magazines and books. 3. Nature of Research. Descriptive research, also known as statistical research, describes data and characteristics about the population or phenomenon being studied. Descriptive research answers the questions who, what, where, when and how. Although the data description is factual, accurate and systematic, the research cannot describe what caused a situation. Thus, descriptive research cannot be used to create a causal relationship, where one variable affects another.In other words, descriptive research can be said to have a low requirement for internal validity. 4. Questionnaire. A well defined questionnaire that is used effectively can gather information on both overall performance of the test system as well as information on specific components of the system. A defeated questionnaire was carefully prepared and specially numbered. The questions were arranged in proper order, in union with the relevance. 5. Nature of Questions Asked. The questionnaire consists of open ended, dichotomous, rating and ranking questions. Pre-testing A pre-testing of questionnaire was conducted with 10 questionnaires, which were distributed and all of them were collected back as completed questionnaire.On the basis of doubts raised by the respondents the questionnaire was redialed to its present form. Sample A finite subset of population, selected from it with the objective of investigating its properties called a sample. A sample is a representative part of the population. A sample of 50 respondents in total has been randomly selected. The response to various elements under each questions were totaled for the purpose of various statistical testing. Variables of the Study. The direct variable of the study is the employee motivation Indirect variables are the incentives, interpersonal relations, career development opportunities and performance appraisal system.