Monday, September 30, 2019
A Long Way Gone: Memoirs of a Boy Soldier and the recent 2006 film Blood Diamond both depict how it was living in Sierra Leone, Africa during the Civil War in the Ã¢â¬Ë90Ã¢â¬â¢s. While A Long Way Gone focuses on child soldiers and what they had to live and go through for many years, Blood Diamond focuses mainly on how the country is torn apart by the struggle between government soldiers and rebel forces. The film portrays many of the atrocities of that war, including the rebelsÃ¢â¬â¢ amputation of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s hands to stop them from voting in upcoming elections. Both the movie and the book try to tackle major issues by asking the questions: how did the rebels and the government gain support, what is the price and impact of way on men, women, children and society. The question addressed by Blood Diamond and A Long Way Gone is that of how the rebels and the government gained the support of the people. This brings up the major issue of child soldiers in Africa, as it is an important topic in both the book and the movie. Blood Diamond and A Long Way Gone both explore this issue, but Blood Diamond shows boys soldiers on the side of the RUF while A Long Way Gone shows them on the side of the national army. Blood Diamond shows how the RUF recruited soldiers, especially young boys. The RUF gained support by force, attacking villages and enslaving the men and boys they captured. The film begins with the capture of Solomon Vandy, a Mende fisherman, by the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) rebels. Separated from his family, Solomon is enslaved to work in the diamond fields under the command of Captain Poison. The RUF use the diamonds to fund their war effort, often trading them directly for arms. SolomonÃ¢â¬â¢s son Dia Vandy is later captured by the RUF and forced to fight for them. They brainwash him by blindfolding him and making him kill people he does not know. They also tell him that he will be a hero of the revolution and he will get respect by killing people. His commander tells him that he can get whatever he wants, Ã¢â¬Å"guns, cdÃ¢â¬â¢s, food,Ã¢â¬ and he gives him drugs to help control him and make him think he will be Ã¢â¬Å"strong, invisible to his enemies. Bullets will bounce off him,Ã¢â¬ and to make him fearless in battle. It is with these techniques that the RUF gained support, by forcing people to become their soldiers and workers and killing any that opposed them. While Blood Diamond showed how the RUF gained support, A Long Way Gone showed how the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s army gained support to fight the RUF. They gained followers by taking in men and boys displaced by the war and looking for a place to live and for safety. In A Long Way Gone, Ishmael Beah tells how his village was also attacked by the RUF and burnt to the ground, but he and several of his friends were not there at the time and were able to escape. He made his way to the village of Yele that was said to be occupied by the army and a safe haven from the RUF. He and his friends lived safely for a time, but the army suffered many loses from the rebels. The army explained that Ã¢â¬Å"in the forest there are men waiting to destroy all of our lives. Some of you are here because they killed your parents, others because this is a safe place to be. Well it is not that safe anymore. Ã¢â¬ They said that they needed strong men and boys to keep the village safe, and if they did not want to fight, they would get no food and not be allowed to stay in the village. Everyone knew leaving the village meant death at the hands of the rebels, so there was very little choice for Beah and his friends and they joined the army. The army inspired and motivated their young soldiers by reminding them that it was Ã¢â¬Å"their time to revenge the deaths of their families and to make sure more children did not lose their families,Ã¢â¬ and that that they were performing Ã¢â¬Å"the highest service they could perform for their country. Ã¢â¬ They also provided the boy soldiers with drugs like cocaine, brown brown (which was a mixture of cocaine and gun powder), and marijuana to control them and make them fearless in battle. Also, over time, the army did not have enough soldiers, so they began to attack villages for supplies to force men and boys to Ã¢â¬Å"fight for their country. Blood Diamond and A Long Way Gone both effectively showed how the rebels and the government gained support, and spread awareness of the issue of children soldiers in Africa. They painted a detailed picture of the horrible events that young men had to witness and participate in, and the struggles they faced during and after the civil war. The next question that both Blood Diamond and A Long Way Gone addresses is the price and impact of war on men, women, children, and society. I feel that both the movie and the book show similar aspects on how people and society are affected because of the war. Many young boys lost all of their family in the chaos of the shootings and had to fend for themselves for the remaining years of the war. Becoming child soldiers on both the government side and the rebels side made many of the boys very disturbed. A Long Way Gone describes horrific images abound; such as bullets sticking out of the back of a baby or 12 year old boys marching to the front, dragging their guns by the muzzle as theyÃ¢â¬â¢re too small to carry them. What is worse is the sense that such horror becomes normalised by its commonality. During his time in the government army, Beah says he killed Ã¢â¬Å"too many people to count. Ã¢â¬ Which shows how disturbing it would be for a young child having to do such things. In Blood Diamond, Dia Vandy is captured by the rebels to fight for them. He is taught to fight aimlessly, shooting everything in his path. The rebels brainwashed him. When his father Solomon comes to his rescue, Dia at first acts like he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t know who he is, he tells him to go away, he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to be near him. Finally Solomon convinces his son to leave the rebels and run away with him. As for how the war impacted women and young girls, they were either shot and killed as they tried to get away or they were brought to a safe place working in the kitchen cooking food for the men. Blood Diamond and A Long Way Gone are both effective tools to tell the world about Sierra Leone and the issues in Africa. Both were able to educate the public about the start of the civil war through the exploitation of diamonds and the corruption of the government, as well as show everyone the awfulness of children soldiers. This book and movie, as well as several others and the work of dedicated people, have been able to tell the stories of Africa, spread awareness, and gain support to make a difference. Even though Blood diamond explains that for now Sierra Leone is at peace, there is still work to do. It urges consumers to insist that the diamonds they purchase are conflict free and reminds everyone that there are still 200,000 children soldiers in Africa. Overall, both are excellent at conveying their message and hopefully have helped make a difference in Africa.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Executive Director Marketing Professor Executive Summary The Rockford Symphony Orchestra is one of the leading cultural institutions n northern Illinois, performing over sixteen classical and pop concerts annually. The RSI was founded in 1934 and incorporated in 1943. The ROOK'S first MusiC Director and Manager, A Arthur Sack, led the orchestra for twenty's years. During this time, the Rockford Area Youth h Symphony Orchestra and the Rockford Symphony Orchestra Guild were established.The RSI continues its commitment to fulfilling its mission to lead in the creation of vibrant musical e experiences that the enlighten, educate, and entertain. (History, n. D. ) The RSI is celebrating its 80 anniversary and wants to reinforce the longevity of the organization by introducing their rich R oxford history into various music and performances for the 20142015 season and beyond. The RSI is also looking to create a closer tie to the Rockford community. The organizations' 80th anniversary needs t o be leveraged in order to increase ova rural ticket sales.The long and harsh winter of 20132014 was a major challenge the RSI faced making it difficult to reach their revenue goals. Ticket sales were 50% lower than their budgeted goal as a result. A brief evaluation of the Rook's strengths and weaknesses has served as a off notation the towards the strategic analysis and a marketing plan for this 80 anniversary celebration and the future of the organization. The plan is to focus on bringing more awareness t o the community, the creating various ways to promote the 80 anniversary this season and increase overall ticket sales.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
A fascination for Science & Technology in the today's world Developed through the technological architecture of electrical engineering and the computational language of mathematics, the science of computer technology has provided considerable recognition and financial gain for many of its well deserving pioneers. Steve Jobs famous quote Ã¢â¬Ëcomputers themselves and software yet to be developed will revolutionize the way we learn. He believed that there are tremendous developments and endless possibilities yet to be explored in this field of computer science. I foresee computer science being used as a tool, as mathematics is used, for all the fields of science. It has always been important for physicists, chemists and biologists to have some understanding of specific areas of mathematics to express their ideas, to write down formulas, and to make predictions. Similarly, in the near future, computer software will become an integral part of the research to create new breakthroughs. For instance, all fields of science collect and analyze a large amount of data. Finding patterns in large amounts of data has always been a crucial block. However, by using state of the art of software for data mining and machine learning, hidden trends and patterns may emerge that can help increase understanding and solve problems. All these problems and their seemingly possible solutions have always motivated me to make artificial intelligence as my part and parcel of my life. A fascination for Science Technology and a keen interest in the ever-growing world of technology motivated me to take up engineering. I choose to major in Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering with an intense urge to delve into the challenging field. During my undergraduate program, I learned the various fundamentals of Electronics Engineering, I was exposed to various courses with applications like Electromagnetic field, Control systems, Power Electronics, Electrical measurements, Linear Integrated Circuits, Electronics, Digital Signal Processing, Introduction to Operating Systems, Microprocessors, Microcontrollers and object-oriented programming with C++, Analog, and Digital electronics. I was always fascinated about microcontrollers, the fact that it is something that bridges the gap between computer software and real-world mechanical devices, which gives it the potential to sense the surrounding using various sensors and take decisions based on parameters it receives. This fascination inspired me to do a project on Coal Mine Safety System using Atmel AVR microcontroller in my final year. I enrolled myself in the course of CCNA (Cisco Certified Network Associate) and CCNP (Cisco Certified Network Professional ) which introduced me to the world of networking and communications. My knowledge of computer networks and programming skills helped me to get a job in Reliance Jio Infocomm Limited. I am working as a part of network planning and optimization team for past 10 months. M y responsibility is to plan and provide optimal indoor solutions for smooth network coverage and data throughput. A quotation attributed to Edsger Dijkstra, states that Ã¢â¬Ëcomputer science is no more about computers than astronomy is about telescopes. The design and deployment of computers and computer systems are generally considered the province of disciplines other than computer science. Computer science is the cross-fertilization of ideas between the various computer-related disciplines, and electronic engineering. I believe that combining these two disciplines will give an excellent grounding in both subject areas and will prepare us for a wide range of careers in both or either fields. This cross-discipline study will give the advantage of becoming a multi-skilled professional engineer with a thorough understanding of the concepts and techniques plus the chance to explore the exciting interface between the two. It is in this context that I wish to pursue a Master in Computer Science. The decision to pursue Masters in Computer Science naturally followed after a good deal of self-evaluation, carefully considering my area of interest, and my ultimate professional ambition, which is to pursue a research career, either as a teaching faculty member or in an RD department of an industry. I am confident that a graduate degree specializing in Artificial Intelligence will enable me to achieve the goal and prepare me for a Ph.D. program in the future. I believe that graduate study in a reputed department, such as yours, is important for a person aspiring for a research career. Working for a thesis under the guidance of an expert whose work can serve as a model is the most effective method of transforming a student into a largely independent researcher making significant original contributions. I feel that XX university with its comprehensive facilities and competent faculty doing quality research work in the field of artificial intelligence will be an ideal place for me to pursue graduate studies.
Friday, September 27, 2019
Human Cloning Philosophy by Aristotle - Essay Example In this paper, we shall highlight the ideas and philosophical concepts of Aristotle about human cloning practices. When in Switzerland the first clone of sheep that was named Dolly made many individuals consider it against human ethics and they believed that such practices contribute to devaluing the natural processes of childbirth. Aristotle has opposed practices of human cloning and supported his thoughts with the claims of psychological influences of human cloning (Aristotle). He explained that babies, who are produced through artificial means by utilizing cells of a single parent, remained deprived of the love of both parents. When they see other children around them with mother and father both they become a victim of complex and depression (Aristotle). Additionally, he highlighted that there is a risky situation for the mother who gives her cells for artificial reproduction process because the procedure of taking out cells from mother`s body is dangerous for her health as well as for the embryo, which is used to making a genetically identical copy of the mother (Aristotle). Moreover, human c loning goes against the natural system and authority of childbirth that has been given to men and women by the God within the boundaries of the legal relationship. However, an advanced system of making human clones or reproduction of test tube babies has degraded rights of men and women and has interrupted the God made procedures of baby production (Aristotle). Aristotle has also supported such claims because he has presented his philosophy that totally disagrees with the ethical nature of human cloning. His philosophy explicitly highlights that human cloning is unethical because unfair and painful means are used to give birth to the baby (Aristotle). He considered that methods of human cloning are bad and it is evident from the first experiment of sheep cloning, which employed more than a hundred scientists to work day andÃ night in order to make an experiment of cloning successful.Ã
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Enlightenment and Scientific Revolution in 18th Century Europe - Essay Example The Enlightenment and Scientific Revolution period in Europe provided a concise account that evoked a change of the mindset in many aspects of life. The revolution provided a new thinking that increasingly became the future people were anticipating. This made people disintegrate itself with the past in the endeavor to foster forward thinking that gave them more hope for the future. The impact of this revolution was that literacy increased in the form of science, philosophy, and art spread throughout Europe. This prompted people in Europe to react against paranormal, spiritual, and mystical thinking. Another impact was that the revolution enabled people to overcome the holy systems and medieval politics that ruled authoritative throughout Europe (Outram 56). The spread of literacy enabled European intellectualism that saw the merchant class rise and new systems of ruling formed. Therefore, the revolution gave rise to new economic and political systems that were further away from the G od-centered world Europe was before the 18th century. During this time, people were empowered to express strongly their beliefs that were against the traditional religion (Mokyr 9). This included notions that nature could be mastered and controlled by human beings not only by God. This further deepened the theme of secular progress in enlightenment and how it was shaping the culture and politics of the people in Europe. The emergence of political theories of the Enlightenment and Scientific Revolution was a global occurrence.
Policy brief on Poverty and Development in Argentina - Assignment Example This report declares that poor enrolment rate of the poor population in Argentina was further worsened by the recent economic recessions that occurred in the years 1995 and 1999. There are viable strategies that could be adopted by the Argentinean government to ensure that this problem is arrested once and for all. The government should ensure that there is extension of greater investments in educational facilities, for example, extending the Ã¢â¬Å"Plan Social EducativoÃ¢â¬ that is currently in place. In addition to that, the government should also grant cash grants to its poor populations to ensure that their children are kept in school especially at the secondary level as this will greatly offset some of the economic incentives arising from leaving school and also cope with the impacts associated with unemployment. This paper makes a conclusion that there is actually a lot that the government of Argentina could do to arrest poverty issues in the country. The establishment or the creation of a system that will entail cost recovery from public university students who at most times tend to come from poor families and the creation of a nationwide system comprising of scholarships for students coming from poor families will be a great step in poverty reduction. Indeed, hope is not lost for Argentina as a country and therefore the adoption of the above strategies will greatly make the country to become a great economic hub in the world.
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Islam Compared to Judaism - Assignment Example Islam basically refers to total submission to the will of Allah or God. Muslims believes that there is only one true God who is all knowing and powerful, and has no end (Goldschmidt, 2001). In addition, they believe that any person, who submits to the will of God, exalts and worships him, will be rewarded in eternity. Similarly, in Judaism, they believe there is only one true God, he is the creator of Universe and has always been there since nobody existed before. More so, those who follow the will of God will be rewarded unlike evil doers who are destined to punishment by death. In Islam, all material possessions such as cars, houses, clothing and furniture are valueless than one true God. All things and pleasures that we have as humans are fine if they lead to satisfaction of what God requires. Muslims believes that God is the one who gives and takes life thus; he has predestined all human activities (Goldschmidt, 2001). Muslims also believes that all world religions were sent by God but, later they were corrupted by human beings. Jews believes that God is giver of life. They view people of all world religions as equal and children of God and that they are just distinct ways to serving the same God whom they must obey and adhere to his law. It is the responsibility of the Jews to adhere to the torah and cement presence of God (Robinson, 2001). Muslims believes that God is everywhere and that he works in a universe in which lives diverse creatures, not all of whom can be felt, heard, or seen by humans. The Quran, for instance, argues that jinns, can do good or bad, but GodÃ¢â¬â¢s Angels are more powerful and they respect his divine will. God sent Angel Gabriel to teach Muhammad how to pray (Esposito, 2010). As Robinson (2001) argues, similarly, the Jews believes that Angels are GodÃ¢â¬â¢s messengers and that they exist in the universe but, cannot be understood or seen by human beings. Muslims
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Write a 500-750 word using exemplification as a method of development. Include a title page and outline with your - Essay Example Of all the things that I value most, I would say that my own physical wellbeing and the health of my family members would come pretty near the top of my list. If a person is ill, or in pain, then enjoyment of any other benefit is meaningless, because suffering takes away the ability to concentrate on anything else. As the government keeps telling us, medical provision, education, fresh air, clean water and all the trappings of modern society are expensive commodities, and they need to be in place if people are to enjoy good health. Alex is lucky, because he relies on the social support systems that were in place in his environment from the moment when he was born. This inheritance is, however, very far from free because millions of American taxpayers have worked hard to provide them. Alex, on the other hand, is a great believer in getting something for nothing. He is not too proud to rummage in garbage cans, or gatecrash parties and he often turns up when there is food around. He thinks that this is a fine way to avoid the expense of paying for his own existence, and claims that free food tastes better because of the satisfaction he gains from not having paid for it. He is, however, mistaken if he thinks that there is no cost involved in his scrounging strategy. There are people who no longer count him as their friend, because they resent being used as a meal ticket by someone who only takes and never gives anything in return. Real friendship is not free: it costs time, effort, and yes, money, to maintain positive relationships with people. Alex is unwittingly excluding himself from the much richer benefits that committed relationships can bring. Nowadays people need gadgets in order to begin and maintain relationships. Things that used to happen in face to face situations now take place across the internet, often using mobile broadband frequencies. Alex knows very little of this new world because he is too busy mocking the Ã¢â¬Å"geeksÃ¢â¬ who
Sunday, September 22, 2019
HRM - Essay Example onsibility for any defeat, injury, or damage resultant from, or occurring in association with, the use of in order contained, described, disclosed, or referred to in this account. The research work starts with the foreword of human resource management. The task will try to center on the idea of human resource management strategies and human resource behavior of McDonalds eating place ltd, the association where I am working. The object of this assignment is to connecting the models of HR strategies with McDonalds and summarising HR behavior like presentation management, incentive and rewards and HR planning. For the reason of HRM strategy I am applying the best practise and best-fit replica with McDonalds. Furthermore, it explains the human resource activities of McDonalds eating place ltd and finish with an suitable conclusions and recommendations that can get better the HRM strategy, HR behavior and the role of the HR meaning within McDonalds eating place Ltd in arrange to achieve greater than before organisational presentation. According to the yearly report of Macdonald human resource management is a strategic and logical approach to the management of an organisations the majority valued possessions: the people operational there who individually and together add to the achievements of its object with the great competence. The aim of HRM is to help the organisation to attain success through the help of public. HRM strategy is an approach for creation decisions on the tactics of the organisation (Dowling P.J, Welch D.E, 2004). These tactics are concerned with the worker relationship and its staffing, training expansion, performance management, rewards and worker strategies. The basic behavior followed by HRM is that of as long as services to internal clientele. These include middle management team head, line managers and employees. The services cover all the aspects of HRM like human resource planning, staffing and selection, worker development, worker rewards,
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Pepsi branding and marketing strategies defined in history Essay In 1893 Caleb Bradham experimented on several soft drink concoctions from his drug store at North Carolina. In 1898 the brand name was first introduced as BradÃ¢â¬â¢s drink but later renamed to Pepsi Cola (Ads history 2007) after the pepsin and cola nuts used in the recipe. Pepsi was first introduced as a fountain drink. It was about 750 microns wide 6 ounces straight sided bottle with paper labels glued to them and a non-descript crown on top. Price was reported to be costing for only a nickel. Advertisement before was done in signage and if you can read the arrowÃ¢â¬â¢s text it says: Ã¢â¬Å"look for the trademarkÃ¢â¬ while the bottom label reads, Ã¢â¬Å"healthful and refreshingÃ¢â¬ (Davidson FSU 2004). In 1903 Caleb sold about 7,968 gallons using the line Ã¢â¬Å"exhilarating invigorating, aids digestionÃ¢â¬ . This also started his franchising activity to independent investors to about 24 states. In 1905 the logo was first changed then changed again in 1906. The slogan was also changed to the Ã¢â¬Å"original pure food drinkÃ¢â¬ which gives a boost to sales of 38,605 gallons. In 1908 the company was the first to shift from horse drawn carts to motor vehicles mode of delivery. In 1909 Barney Oldfield endorsed Pepsi as Ã¢â¬Å"a bully drinkÃ¢â¬ ¦ refreshing, invigorating, a fine bracer before the race.Ã¢â¬ In 1920 the theme was changed to Ã¢â¬Å"drink Pepsi cola, it will satisfy youÃ¢â¬ . In 1934 Pepsi cola replaced the 6 ounce bottle to 12 ounce bottle at the same price which is still a nickel. The shift was brought about by the high depression which demands for low cost products but high value. The 12 ounce bottle previously priced at ten cents was slashed to five cents which made a hit because it was of same value as the competitive colas of 6 ounce bottles. It was then known as the Pepsi legacy followed by skyrocketed sales giving the company a real good break. In 1939 they pioneered the idea of a comic strip form of advertising in the newspapers introduced and named as Pepsi Pete promoting the product as Ã¢â¬Å"twice as much for a nickelÃ¢â¬ which deliberately increased consumer awareness in the process. Pepsi cola was remarkably associated nationwide with two policemen that were patterned after the Keystone Kops and became extremely popular. In 1940 their nationwide advertising campaign theme was changed to: Ã¢â¬Å"Pepsi cola hits the spot, 12 full ounces, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s a lot twice as much for a nickel too! Pepsi cola is the drink for you.Ã¢â¬ At the same time, they launched the first jingle in the cola world known as Ã¢â¬Å"Nickel, nickelÃ¢â¬ . The jingle was recorded in fifty five different languages and produced over one million records played coast to coast on radio. It was well adapted by the consumers and those who have heard the jingle. Their jingles appropriately played to the perception and emotional-psychological responses of the consumers for even fifty years later some still remembered. The logo was also changed to a simpler bolder rounded script letters that is really noticeable. Pepsi cola bottles adapted the embossed 12 ounce bottle designed and had the word Pepsi blown and baked into the side of the bottle while the paper labels were replaced as blown labels also. Pepsi cola began to tap the African American niche market and commenced advertising in a Negro newspaper lead by an all black sales team. They also sponsored a nationwide essay contest hiring African Americans professionals in the process. An advertisement specifically aimed for African Americans was modeled by a black mother holding a six packed Pepsi while the son was reaching out to the bottles. In 1941, the crown was changed to red, white, and blue. This was done to support AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s war effort. They wisely set up a Pepsi canteen in Times Square New York. It served to help familiesÃ¢â¬â¢ record messages for overseas armed service personnel. In 1943 the theme twice as much included Ã¢â¬Å"bigger drink, better tasteÃ¢â¬ . In 1947 one of their ad campaigns profiled prominent African Americans using the title Ã¢â¬Å"Leaders in their fieldÃ¢â¬ . Using racism as a selling point, their sales shot up dramatically. In 1949 the theme Ã¢â¬Å"why take less when PepsiÃ¢â¬â¢s bestÃ¢â¬ was added. In 1950 the new logo incorporated the bottle cap look. Advertising was done by promoting Pepsi as an experience rather than a bargain. Slogan was changed to Ã¢â¬Å"more bounce to the ounceÃ¢â¬ . They relied and invested more with advertising that tripled their sales that year. The jingle was then changed to Ã¢â¬Å"have a Pepsi, the light refreshmentÃ¢â¬ . In 1953 Americans became conscious with weight and health that they changed their slogan to Ã¢â¬Å"the light refreshmentÃ¢â¬ . The formula was also changed with a reduced caloric content. In 1954 the slogan Ã¢â¬Å"refreshing without fillingÃ¢â¬ was incorporated to the light refreshment theme. In 1958 Pepsi was known as the kitchen cola as a result of its bargain branch longtime positioning. This time Pepsi targeted the young fashionable consumers. The slogan was changed to Ã¢â¬Å"be sociable, have a PepsiÃ¢â¬ . The bottle was then changed to the swirl designed bottle replacing the old straight sided one. Along with it was the introduction of the ballroom dancing. In 1960 the slogan was changed to Ã¢â¬Å"now itÃ¢â¬â¢s Pepsi for those who think youngÃ¢â¬ . It defines youth as a psychological state of mind it maintains its appeal for the post war young generation and to all market segments. Some commercials portrayed people going fishing. In 1962 the logo was changed again with serrated bottle caps along with its Pepsi generation ads. In 1963 12 ounce bottles gave way to16 ounce bottles. Pepsi then introduced the 12 ounce Pepsi cans to the military for transport convenience. Their advertising historyÃ¢â¬â¢s slogan was introduced as Ã¢â¬Å"come alive, youÃ¢â¬â¢re in the Pepsi generationÃ¢â¬ along with their jingle Ã¢â¬Å"come aliveÃ¢â¬ also. Commercials usually portrayed sports and entertainment concept like motorbikes, amusement park and sand sailing. In 1970 Pepsi introduced the first two liter bottles. They were also the first to respond to consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s need for light weight recyclable plastic bottles. In 1973 Pepsi changed its logo again. The slogan was also changed to Ã¢â¬Å"join the Pepsi people, feeling freeÃ¢â¬ which is their very own interpretation of one people but with many personalities. In 1975 Pepsi introduced the Pepsi challenge marketing campaign where the results of the blind tasting test between Pepsi cola and its rival Coca cola was made public through television commercials. Participants picked Pepsi as the cola that taste better. As a result Coca cola changed their formula to taste more like Pepsi. The slogan jingle was then Ã¢â¬Å"youÃ¢â¬â¢ve got a lot to live, Pepsi got a lot to giveÃ¢â¬ . On that year Ã the two liter plastishield bottle was introduced. The theme is to promote to live and to give. In 1978 the 12 packed can were introduced to the market. In 1991 Pepsi introduced the first polyethylene terephthalate (PET) along with the changed of its new logo. In 1993 the slogan was changed to Ã¢â¬Å"be young, have funÃ¢â¬ modeled by Shaquille OÃ¢â¬â¢Neal. In 2001 Britney Spears run her first Pepsi commercial doing her own version of Ã¢â¬Å"The joy of PepsiÃ¢â¬ . In 2003 Pepsi cola has a new theme: Ã¢â¬Å"Pepsi itÃ¢â¬â¢s the cola.Ã¢â¬ It portrays popularity in the cola industry that goes from food to fun. Evaluation For decades Pepsi has defined itself as the slogan wizard that can closely associate with the times and changing lifestyle of the consumers. It has first introduced itself as a health drink which was the very reason why it has garnered a big portion of the cola market pie. As it continued to evolve in the market, it has studied its market well, and has well developed themes and slogans or activities that will create consumer awareness. Marketing strategy has always been the challenge of any external environment and how you select your target market, know the needs of your market and penetrate by spending more on advertisements to create consumer awareness. And how Pepsi has penetrated consumers like the Blacks was by spending on advertisements promoting racism to equality and in return enjoyed skyrocketed sales. Tactics will always change along with the evolution of logos, bottle designs, storyboard and jingles. Jingles and music have a very strong psychological effect on the minds of the consumers. It will always be remembered even if fifty years later. Jingles tune and lyrics stays more in the minds of the consumers longer than plain ads signage, commercials, and slogans. As we have noted Pepsi has been very sensitive with what is happening to its world politically and with the needs of its consumers as portrayed by their continuous changed of slogans and jingles. Pepsi has always been portrayed to be part of the life of their target markets. It was never separated in commercials as plain features of the product but rather as something that consumers can greatly identify with themselves. Marketing was a silent warfare among leading competitors. What Pepsi did was to concentrate on specific untapped niche markets and evolved its theme to be able to maintain consumer database. Pepsi had always been keen to combine on product, price, market, and promotion sometimes as far as demographics and selection which always resulted to a captivated market. Pepsi realized that it should focus and play on product innovation and advertising first to promote the brand and not the reverse. Their strong image was the result of directed marketing mix variables. The slogans were always guided by the concept of people and health as it was presented as a health drink in the first stages of its life. When Pepsi developed its campaign Pepsi generation portraying the product as a trendy drink for the young, it has made other cola products looked stodgy. Branding may offer instant product recognition or sort of identification but it was, for always, a result of effective advertising. Pepsi had successfully made the consumers identified themselves with the product by its series of jingles and slogans with just one unchanged brand name but packed with a lot of commercials and ads networking. One thing for sure Pepsi was able to determine its market changing lifestyle, need, and taste and that the product needs to evolve along with the consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s trend. So advertising could well focus on the dominating activity of target market in the life cycle of the product. Perception and emotional responses of the consumers were of very important consideration on PepsiÃ¢â¬â¢s approach in the process of creating consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s sense of identification with the product. The main thing that Pepsi had done is to link the product with the consumer and not the consumer linking self with the product. As a result they had a handful of loyal customer base. Summary of Pepsi ads and logos Year 1898: Introduction of Pepsi. Packaging: 750 microns wide, 6 ounces straight sided bottle, paper labels glued to them, non-descript crown on top Cost: nickel Theme: Look for the trademark, healthful and refreshing. Branding: Introduced first as BradÃ¢â¬â¢s drink but was later changed to Pepsi cola. Logo: Thin brand name Pepsi cola. Packaging: 6 pack bottle as shown below. Advertising: form of signage, please see image below: Delivery: horse driven cart Year 1903: start of franchising. Theme: Exhilarating, invigorating, aids digestion. Sales: 7,968 gallons Logo: still the same. Year 1905: Logo was first changed. The point is to make the letters bolder from the old thin ones. This is easier to read even at a distance. Delivery: automobile delivery Year 1909: Barney Oldfield Endorsement: Barney oldfield, a racer, endorsed Pepsi. Theme: A bully drinkÃ¢â¬ ¦ refreshing, invigorating, a fine bracer before the race. Advertisements: newspaper ads Year 1920: Theme Theme: Drink Pepsi cola, it will satisfy you Year 1934: Pepsi legacy. Price of product: changed from ten cents to five cents. Packaging: 12 full ounce bottles. Sales: skyrocketed. Year 1939: comic strip Comic strip: Pepsi Pete Advertising: newspapers Effect of advertising: Pepsi cola was associated with the characters. Theme: Twice as much for a nickel Signage: Target market: Advertising targeting African Americans: Year 1940: Jingle break Theme: Ã¢â¬Å"Pepsi-Cola hits the spot Twelve full ounces, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s a lot Twice as much for a nickel, too Pepsi-Cola is the drink for you.Ã¢â¬ Jingle: Nickel, nickel Logo: Packaging: bottles are 12 full ounce with embossed Pepsi word and label. Sponsored: Nationwide essay writing using Blacks Year 1941: American war support Crown: changed to red, white, and blue Make: Year 1943: Theme Theme: Bigger drink, better taste Year 1947: Blacks in ads Theme: Leaders in their field Year 1949: Theme Theme: Why take less when PepsiÃ¢â¬â¢s best Year 1950: bottle cap Slogan: More bounce to the ounce (energetic decade) Logo: bottle cap with desc logo Jingle: have a Pepsi, the light refreshment Year 1953: Theme Slogan: The light refreshment Reason: to answer the weight conscious Americans Year 1954: Theme Slogan added: Refreshing without filling Year 1958: Target Target market: young and fashionable Slogan: Be sociable, have a Pepsi Bottle: swirl design Trend: ballroom dancing Year 1960: slogan Slogan: Now itÃ¢â¬â¢s Pepsi for those who think young Reason: Be young think young Commercials: soda fountain, fishing Year 1962: logo Logo: logo was changed Caps: serrated bottle caps Year 1963: bottles volume Bottles: shifted from 12 ounce to 16 ounce then to 12 ounce cans Jingle: Come alive Slogan: Come alive, youÃ¢â¬â¢re in the Pepsi generation. Reason: Identifies with the consumers and not by the products attributes Commercials: motorbikes, amusement park, sand sailing Year 1970: bottles Bottles: two liters Year 1973: logo Logo was changed Slogan: Join the Pepsi people, feeling free Reason: One people, many personalities Year 1975: Pepsi challenge Commercials: results of the Pepsi challenge was made public in TV Jingle: YouÃ¢â¬â¢ve got to live Pepsi got a lot to give Bottle: introduction of two liter plastishield bottles Year 1978: Packaging: introduced the 12 packed cans Year 1991: Packaging: PET Logo: changed Year 1993: theme Slogan: Be young have fun Year 2001: theme Slogan: The joy of Pepsi References Ads history highlights (2007). Retrieved November 8, 2007 Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Website: http://www.pepsi.com/help/faqs/faq.php?category=ads_and_history page=highlights Davidson, M. W. FSU (2004). The Pepsi generation. Retrieved November 8, 2007 Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Website: http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/creatures/pages/pepsi.html
Friday, September 20, 2019
Impact of Technology on Society Impact of Technology on Society Abstract The communication industry and the invention of communication devices marked a new phase in the interaction and social patterns of people. Taking into account the social needs of people, communication is an essential element that was made possible by telephones. Therefore, the technology of using telephones bridged the gap between the social needs and the geographical location (VanFossen, Berson, 2008). This was a major problem when the world had no communication devices. This research paper will look into the telephone technology in detail and then outline a number of impacts related to this technology. Attention in this research paper will be paid to how the introduction of the telephone technology changed the world. Impact of Technology on Society Introduction The technology chosen for this discussion is telephone. The telephone technology works by transmitting sounds and signals in distant places. This implies that people in far regions can communicate with ease without having to travel. This technology was conceived by Graham Bell in the 18th century and has changed the way people interact to this day. During the development of the telephone, there was a high level of skepticism that surrounded many people about the effectiveness of these gadgets (Ling, 2004). These concerns were addressed by the successful launch and operations of the first telephone. Societal Outlook after Introduction of Telephone Technology The introduction of telephones in the human history changed communication and the way people interacted. From a social perspective, the situation improved because people would talk and make decisions while in distant places. There was a great deal of convenience that came about as a result of this technology. For example, the cost of travelling for the purpose of relaying information was reduced with interested parties talking while in different locations. Interaction was taken a notch higher after the introduction of this technology with people talking about various things over the telephone. There was also a new trend of exchanging information and ideas never seen before in human civilization. The question of building relationships and networks by talking to people on the telephone changed as a result of telephones. Economically, there was increased trade between various regions. It should be noted that the telephone was good for business because traders would communicate with traders situated in other locations. From a business perspective, communication is an essential element in relation to the movement of goods and services. This means that communication means a lot in relation to the exchange of commodities. When the telephone was introduced, a new wave of business efficiency was experienced as a result of reduction in communication barriers that were prevalent at the time. Employment opportunities increased as a result of effective communication between various people doing business. In other words, capital inflows increased as a result of foreign investments. Communication was instrumental in terms of convincing investors from other parts of the world to come and invest in a given region (Lin Atkin, 2002). Globalization can also be attributed to the use of the telephone in the early year s. As a result of effective communication, the world was in a better position in terms of engaging with international partners. An increase in economic growth and development as a result of a high penetration of knowledge was experienced. A close review of the above mentioned changes shows that the telephone technology is a major invention that shaped the world in a major way. The open interaction system created by introduction of the telephone was a step in the right direction that improved the standards of living for most people. At the same time, the prices of commodities were standardized in relation to a connected world. From a political perspective, the telephone was an invaluable tool in terms of administration and coordinating various projects. Thanks to the communication process between various people, administration issues were effectively sorted out. Playing an oversight role in anything without proper communication is a sham affair that is not viable. Thus, the telephone invention was a major step towards the management of regions and resources. In addition, those playing the management role with regards to the political systems of a given region were expected to utilize effective communication for the purpose of making their intentions known (Mitcham, 2005). Welfare, Health and State of Environment The welfare aspect of society was enhanced as a result of the introduction of telephone technology. There were many issues that were addressed with the advent of this technology. There was a transition felt by many people in relation to highlighting various events happening in the society. A good example that can be used to show the welfare impact of this technology was the discussion of events over the telephone by many people. The culture of discussing issues in groups changed drastically and transformed to detailed analysis of information through telephone communication. The health of the society changed for the better with the emergence of telephone technology. For example, the communication and dissemination of information increased in a way that helped people to understand various issues happening in the society. From a mass communication point of view, attaining a healthy society entails taking into account how information and ideas are exchanged (Lin Atkin, 2002). This is why regions with poor communication mechanisms are considered as less healthy. The expectation is that a society with effective communication systems is able to address issues with consideration and consultation. This is opposed to a society where the communication infrastructure is not well developed. With regards to the state of the environment, telephone technology signaled a new phase in terms of environmental conservation issues. It is imperative to note that communication has a direct correlation with the state of the environment. For example, a society with diverse communication channels provides ample opportunities for deliberation on issues associated with the environment. In this case, those concerned about the environmental systems, used the communication aspect for the purpose of enlightening the public about the problems that needed to be addressed. Functioning of Society after Implementation of Technology The telephone enabled governments and other administration systems in terms of managing people from diverse backgrounds and cultures. From a leadership perspective, there is need for different people to have a common agenda that unites them as a country. This fete can only be attained through telephone communication. A look at regions with many cultures shows an improvement in the governance system as a result of effective movement of information from one point to another. By communicating in a common language such as English, which is widely spoken by people around the world, leaders were able to communicate their agenda to the public. According to analysts, communication played an influential role in terms of shaping governance systems and the consolidation of power (Mercer, 2006). Therefore, the influence of telephones on the political realm of people was widespread and changed the course of history in relation to leadership. Education and the public system of teaching was enhanced as a result of this technology. By the time Bell discovered the telephone, education was a problem and was conducted in a way that was not viable for both students and teachers. The problem was that communication was not taking place in the right way. There are many instances where students did not receive the best learning curriculum due to breakdown in communication. It can be said that communication influenced the learning culture in a better way by introducing ideas from other regions. This was made possible as a result of communication between teachers in various parts of the world. As educational providers embarked on developing the best curriculum for their students, communication through the telephone was emphasized. This implies that the telephone technology improved learning by promoting curriculum development. Negative and Positive Impacts of Telephones on Welfare and Health Negative Impacts The first demerit of the telephone technology in terms of health and welfare of the society was reduction in the physical contact among the people engaged in communication. There were worries that the new technology would affect the social bonds that people had considering that communicating through the telephone is devoid of meeting the person physically. This presented a social threat to the coexistence of people and was slated to create isolation due to talking over the telephone for a long time (Mitcham, 2005). The other negative aspect of the telephone technology on welfare was the cost associated with making a call. The charges of making telephone calls at the time were high and discouraged other people from using the communication device. This explains why the technology was a preserve of the affluent. On the other hand, the ordinary people did not find it convenient to use the communication at a cost. This is an indication that despite the invention of this technology, the needs of people were not met. Mental health complications were another impact of using the telephone technology. According to psychologists, the signals that coordinate communication between one person and the other can damage the brain cells. The damage caused by the waves to the brain cells is considered to have far reaching implications on the long term mental condition of a person. These signals react have the capability of reacting with brain cells hence, reducing functionality. The risk was high among those people who were using the technology repeatedly. As can be seen in the above description, the mode of communicating through the telephone was harmful to human health. Positive Impacts The main positive aspect of introducing the telephone technology was convergence of the world. Due to an increase in the number of people communicating, the entire world was interconnected and thereby fostered a new era of transport and trade agreements. As long as the whole world was connected through the telephone technology, there was every reason to believe that telephones helped in making the world a single compendium. In addition, the new connection of the globe helped nations and individuals to seek opportunities beyond their shore such as in the area of business and education. Nothing beats efficiency in terms of production and even relationships (VanFossen, Berson, 2008). The telephone was an important addition that changed the landscape in a better way. For example, those doing business were able to expand their scope by travelling to new areas. In addition, there was increased cohesion around the world like never before. Lack of a definite communication structure interfer es with the system of interaction by creating tension. The second positive aspect about telephone technology is the idea of promoting freedom and democracy through deliberations. According to communication experts, the use of telephones was a game changer in terms of expression and the pursuit of universal rights on freedom of speech. The above mentioned elements of human rights could not have been achieved without the help of the telephone. It is logical to point that this technology opens up opportunities for users on many fronts such as economic, political and social. Negative and Positive Impacts of Telephones on the Environment Negative Impacts The major problem brought about by the telephone technology was emission of waves that maybe harmful to the environment. The ecosystem is an important medium that humans need to survive and thus exposing the latter to these emissions pose a huge risk to human, animal and plant life. The erection of telephone poles and machinery that supported the operation of telephones was conducted in a way that was not environmentally viable. The question of this new technology being a burden rather than a solution was raised with regards to the negative impacts on the environment. The second problem with the use telephones was over dependency. After this technology was introduced, the rate of dependency increased as a result of long distance relationships which had been maintained. There was also an unprecedented increase psychological issues related to the dependency mentioned in the previous statement (Lin Atkin, 2002). The bottom line is that this technology changed the aspect of dependency that was prevalent before, the technology was conceived. The problem with this trend was that a small breakdown in the communication chain would affect relationships and plans in a major way. Positive Impacts The good side of using telephones with regards to the environment was effective coordination and interaction that created value. This was not the case during the days when telephones had not been invented. Value is normally created through the process of interaction. This also depends on the objectives of both parties in the interaction. The negative impacts of telephones on the environment are many as compared to the positive attributes. This has been evidenced by the above analysis of negative and positive impacts of the telephone technology. Impact of Telephone Technology and Engineering Practices The example of the telephone technology outlined in this discussion shows the need for innovation and flexibility in the field. Innovation is a crucial requirement in the field of engineering since, the latter raises the prospects of addressing various challenges facing the society. Just like the genius concepts applied by Graham Bell during his discovery, the same approach should be used by engineers focused on improving their skills. A culture of innovation should be inculcated in the engineering field to help position developers in terms of developing viable solutions that address societal challenges. Critical Thinking Skills and Evaluating Impact of Technology The emergence of the telephone concept is a reflection of high level innovation and satisfaction of human needs (Ling, 2004). Since, the early years of development, a number of developments have been made and as the modern situation shows, communication is changing at a fast rate. The society is at the center of this change and provides an explanation of how best a given technology works for the needs of people. Conclusion The world is better and more informed because of the telephone technology. The scope of influence created by this technology is immense and has changed the way people interact and think. With the changing times, the system of communication has been taking a new turn with new trend coming up. The impacts of this technology on the environment, health and welfare of the society shows the strides made since, the early years. References Lin, C. A., Atkin, D. J. (2002). Communication technology and society: Audience adoption and uses. Creskill, N.J: Hampton Press. Ling, R. S. (2004). The mobile connection: The cell phones impact on society. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann. Mercer, D. (2006). The telephone: The life story of a technology. Westport, CN: Greenwood Press. Mitcham, C. (2005). Encyclopedia of science, technology, and ethics. Detroit, MI: Macmillan Reference USA. VanFossen, P. J., Berson, M. J. (2008). The electronic republic: The impact of technology on education for citizenship. West Lafayette, Ind: Purdue University Press.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
My Agony is More Noble Than Your Pain In a world where an infallibly righteous God oversees justice, the source of all human suffering is known and understood. While this may not make the pain of the punishment He assigns any less agonizing, it at least lends it clarity. When Job loses his family and his fortune, he immediately knows with whom to take up his case. However, in a world where the gods do not determine all human actions and exert their influence arbitrarily, oneÃ¢â¬â¢s misfortune is wholly oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own to bear, no matter how undeserved it may be. Sophocles emphasizes this human aspect of injustice in Electra and Philoctetes, placing both main characters in a position of undeserved suffering caused largely by human actions. Electra and Philoctetes are in a situation comparable to JobÃ¢â¬âthey were wronged by powers mightier than themselves and bringing those powers to justice is an arduous or downright impossible task. Both characters must decide whether to cling to their suffering because it is just , at the expense of their humanity or their lives, or to relinquish it in order to rejoin society either literally, in PhiloctetesÃ¢â¬â¢s case, or metaphorically in ElectraÃ¢â¬â¢s. Where Job could not feasibly punish God, and was therefore left with only the choice between abandoning or maintaining his faith in the face of injustice, the world of arbitrary and human injustice opens a new avenue to end suffering: revenge. Electra immediately seizes on this as her only hope of salvation and sets the machinery to accomplish it in motion by sending Orestes off with Pedagogus after her fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s murder. However, this shifts her control of the revenge out of her hands and, while her communication with Orestes keeps the prospect close enough to obsess her, it also renders her entirely passive to his will. The chorus repeatedly rebukes her for her self-inflicted misery, claiming that nothing will assuage it once it has been too deeply entrenched. They say, Ã¢â¬Å"If past the bounds of sense you dwell in grief that is cureless, with sorrow unending, you will only destroy yourself, in a matter where evil knows no deliveranceÃ¢â¬ ¦Why do you seek it?Ã¢â¬ (Electr a, 140-145). Electra does not refute the truth of their speech, focusing instead on her admiration of those who cling to suffering. In contrast, whatever desire for vengeance Philoctetes has towards those who wronged him, he can only direct it through curses and appeals to the gods because he has no reasonable hope of punishing Odysseus and the Atridae himself. My Agony is More Noble Than Your Pain :: Essays Papers My Agony is More Noble Than Your Pain In a world where an infallibly righteous God oversees justice, the source of all human suffering is known and understood. While this may not make the pain of the punishment He assigns any less agonizing, it at least lends it clarity. When Job loses his family and his fortune, he immediately knows with whom to take up his case. However, in a world where the gods do not determine all human actions and exert their influence arbitrarily, oneÃ¢â¬â¢s misfortune is wholly oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own to bear, no matter how undeserved it may be. Sophocles emphasizes this human aspect of injustice in Electra and Philoctetes, placing both main characters in a position of undeserved suffering caused largely by human actions. Electra and Philoctetes are in a situation comparable to JobÃ¢â¬âthey were wronged by powers mightier than themselves and bringing those powers to justice is an arduous or downright impossible task. Both characters must decide whether to cling to their suffering because it is just , at the expense of their humanity or their lives, or to relinquish it in order to rejoin society either literally, in PhiloctetesÃ¢â¬â¢s case, or metaphorically in ElectraÃ¢â¬â¢s. Where Job could not feasibly punish God, and was therefore left with only the choice between abandoning or maintaining his faith in the face of injustice, the world of arbitrary and human injustice opens a new avenue to end suffering: revenge. Electra immediately seizes on this as her only hope of salvation and sets the machinery to accomplish it in motion by sending Orestes off with Pedagogus after her fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s murder. However, this shifts her control of the revenge out of her hands and, while her communication with Orestes keeps the prospect close enough to obsess her, it also renders her entirely passive to his will. The chorus repeatedly rebukes her for her self-inflicted misery, claiming that nothing will assuage it once it has been too deeply entrenched. They say, Ã¢â¬Å"If past the bounds of sense you dwell in grief that is cureless, with sorrow unending, you will only destroy yourself, in a matter where evil knows no deliveranceÃ¢â¬ ¦Why do you seek it?Ã¢â¬ (Electr a, 140-145). Electra does not refute the truth of their speech, focusing instead on her admiration of those who cling to suffering. In contrast, whatever desire for vengeance Philoctetes has towards those who wronged him, he can only direct it through curses and appeals to the gods because he has no reasonable hope of punishing Odysseus and the Atridae himself.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Christmas Is A Good Holiday For Many Reasons Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Christmas is a good holiday for many reasons. There are reasons that exist that make Christmas a bad holiday, but for the most part it is a wonderful time of year. Millions of people around the world will agree that Christmas is one of the most fun and exciting holidays. Christmas is a good holiday because students get a vacation from school, people get to exchange gifts with friends and family, and people get to spend time with their families. Those three reasons, among others, help to make Christmas one of the best holidays. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã First of all, Christmas is a good holiday because students get a vacation from school. While not in school, students have no homework. That really helps to make the holidays more enjoyable. With no school, students have no reason to get up early so they can stay out late and sleep late in the morning. When Christmas comes around, it means that the school year is half over. If a student has done well the first semester, he or she is sure to survive the second semester. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Next, people get to exchange gifts with friends and family. Exchanging gifts is always fun because people receive new things. Who couldn't enjoy something that was given to them free. Also, people get to give gifts to their friends and family. Giving gifts always gives people that warm happy feeling inside. The most enjoyable part is seeing the gifts that people gave being opened by the people receiving them. That always puts a smile on peoples faces. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Last but not least, people get to spend time with family. Some of the family may not have been seen in a long time so it puts everyone in a good mood to finally see them. Being with family is fun and helps make the holidays more enjoyable. One thing that many families may find interesting is sharing stories.
In his collection of essays in Nobody Knows My Name, James Baldwin uses Ã¢â¬Å"Fifth Avenue, UptownÃ¢â¬ to establish the focus that African Americans no matter where they are positioned would be judged just by the color of their skin. Through his effective use of descriptive word choice, writing style and tone, Baldwin helps the reader visualize his position on the subject. He argues that Ã¢â¬Å"Negroes want to be treated like menÃ¢â¬ (Baldwin, 67). Baldwin gives a vivid sketch of the depressing conditions he grew up on in Fifth Avenue, Uptown by using strong descriptive words. He makes use of such word choices in his beginning sentences when he reflects back to his house which is now replaced by housing projects and Ã¢â¬Å"one of those stunted city trees is snarling where our [his] doorway used to beÃ¢â¬ (Baldwin...
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Giovanni Bellini was an Italian Renaissance painter who is known for his oil-painting technique and his use of vibrant colors. The Renaissance was a period in which a cultural revolution or movement was taking place; it started out in Italy and spread out through other parts of Western Europe. BelliniÃ¢â¬â¢s various works echo the voices of the Renaissance and different aspects of the movement. During the Renaissance, religion was an integral factor in society; as a result, it was very much involved in the art and culture. BelliniÃ¢â¬â¢s famous Madonna and Child is originally a religious painting which is believed to depict the Virgin Mary and Jesus, causing popularity and appeal amongst the religious audience of the time. A compelling message behind this painting is the affection and serenity present; even though it is not overly emotional; the connection between the Virgin Mary and Jesus is evident. To a more modern and general audience, this painting could be considered from an extended perspective. Madonna and Child could possibly be a general depiction of a mother and her child. In light of the Renaissance, this painting could be decoded to show the relationship between women and children and how children were viewed as the sole concern or job of women. The position of the hands in a submissive manner could mean that women comprehend or surrender to their obligations of being mothers first and foremost. An underlying message is possibly to inform the masses regarding the nature of the relationship that binds women and children; a bond that is indispensable to society. In Madonna and Child, Bellini uses oil paint on a wooden canvas. He resorts to a black background in order to bring out the colors and exaggerate the focus on the central figures. The features on both figures are very precise and careful which shows great technique. Also, the colors in the painting stand out to anyone that looks towards the painting which gives it an aura that is different than other less colorful paintings of the time. With a closer look, the colors and aspects of the painting resemble different things when put into context of its time and place. Although not prominent, the use of green shows honor, integrity and respect. The red; however, which is the most protuberant, brings attention to the drapery which is a sign of high rank and importance. The white, as always, signifies purity and transparency. The use of color is, possibly, the most obvious and visible channel between the creator of a painting and the paintingÃ¢â¬â¢s audience. Therefore, much detail should be given to the colors and shades in order to further understand the memorandum of a painting. Bellini also chooses to keep the painting very simple rather than add other symbols or representations. In other versions of his Madonna and Child, he usually painted a landscape in the background and placed a few objects. Perhaps the reason Bellini chose not to do that in this version of the painting was to not distract the audience from the concentration of the painting and to bring the two figures out more. He might have thought that the less it contained, the more powerful it would be. When contrasted with other artistsÃ¢â¬â¢ Madonna and Child, this painting appears to be quite different. While the central religious message remains in all versions of the painting, Bellini resorts to different elements when compared to Duccio di Buoninsegna for instance. In BuoninsegnaÃ¢â¬â¢s Madonna and Child, the features are less detailed and intricate and the colors are not as vibrant. Also, there is more affection in BuoninsegnaÃ¢â¬â¢s version which is manifested in the way the Virgin Mary is holding Jesus and the way Jesus is reaching for her face. BelliniÃ¢â¬â¢s Madonna and Child is an exquisite version of the painting which serves as a milestone in Christian art. His technique and use of color add to its uniqueness and distinctiveness. Even though it dates back to the Renaissance, and functions in the religious context of the time, this Madonna and Child still appeals to the eyes of modern audience.
Monday, September 16, 2019
Ã¢â¬ËHamletÃ¢â¬â¢ is a revenge tragedy; a genre originally developed by plays such as Ã¢â¬ËThe Spanish TragedyÃ¢â¬â¢ by Thomas Kyd from 1585-1590. The genre is characterized by the inclusion of death, murder, betrayal, madness, poison, surveillance and the supernatural in the narrative Ã¢â¬â themes that all frequently occur in Ã¢â¬ËHamletÃ¢â¬â¢. However to what extent does the story of Polonius, Ophelia and Laertes conform to this idea of a revenge tragedy; and more broadly, how does the story of the family conform to the genre of tragedy as a whole? One issue is how to define a tragedy; Thomas Heywood wrote: Ã¢â¬Å"Comedies begin in trouble and end in peace; tragedies begin in calm and end in tempestÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬ËApology for ActorsÃ¢â¬â¢, 1612. By this definition, tragedy generally can be summarised as a sequence of events that lead to the destruction of the majority of its characters. In this sense, the story of Polonius and his family conforms to the basic skeleton of a tragedy Ã¢â¬â by the end of the play Polonius, Laertes and Ophelia are dead. However the familyÃ¢â¬â¢s story does not conform as simply to other definitions of tragedy. Ã¢â¬Ë[Tragedy] would look with a sceptical eye at what was happening in the world aroundÃ¢â¬â¢, M. Mangan (1991). Ã¢â¬ËTragedy would look with a sceptical eyeÃ¢â¬â¢ implies that tragedy has the role of both viewing and criticising society. This concept can be applied to Polonius, a character remarkably similar to Queen Elizabeth IÃ¢â¬â¢s spymaster, Sir Francis Walsingham. Shakespeare spent the majority of his life under ElizabethÃ¢â¬â¢s rule; hence the ElizabethÃ¢â¬â¢s gentry may have aided Shakespeare in creating his constructs. Polonius is characterized by his long, rambling speeches, for example in Act 2 Scene 2; Ã¢â¬ËEither for tragedy, comedy, history, pastoral, pastorical-comical, historical-pastoral, tragic-historical, tragical-comical-historical-pastoral unlimitedÃ¢â¬â¢ The absurd repetition of the words Ã¢â¬ËtragedyÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËcomedyÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËhistoryÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËpastoralÃ¢â¬â¢ emphasize the loquaciousness of Polonius, but is perhaps also mocking Sir Francis Walsingham. Shakespeare is crafting a stereotype that spymasters are loquacious, obsequious characters. Perhaps Shakespeare is criticising society; society does not require spymasters spawning insincerity and deceit. If so, Shakespeare is using satire as a tool to portray this viewpoint. Polonius may be used by Shakespeare as a means to act as such a Ã¢â¬Ësceptical eyeÃ¢â¬â¢ on society, conforming to ManganÃ¢â¬â¢s concept of the relevance of tragedy in real life. Aristotle was a key figure in defining tragedy, and stated in his Ã¢â¬ËPoeticsÃ¢â¬â¢ that a typical tragedy consisted of a noble protagonist, with a hamartia (tragic flaw), whose peripeteia (reversal of fortune) is brought about by an anagnorisis (moment of recognition). However it would be unwise to assume that AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËPoeticsÃ¢â¬â¢, written in c. 335 BC would still be completely relevant to Shakespearean tragedy, written some two thousand years later. However several aspects of AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s tragedy can be applied to Polonius and his family. Polonius has his tragic flaw: his obsession with spying. He tells Reynaldo before departing to France to spy on Laertes: Ã¢â¬ËBy indirections find directions outÃ¢â¬â¢ (Act 2 Scene 1) Not only does this indicate his unnatural interest in his sonÃ¢â¬â¢s affairs, so much that he is willing to send a spy to observe his sons possible hedonism in Paris; but it also shows that he is experienced as a spymaster. Such advice is most likely to be learned from several years of manipulating people to his advantage. Essentially what he is saying is the most direct method of finding the truth is through being indirect, which holds to be true as we see later in the play with HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËThe MousetrapÃ¢â¬â¢; a play within a play which exposes ClaudiusÃ¢â¬â¢ villainy through indirect and subtle methods. Furthermore on the topic of hamartia Ã¢â¬â Laertes has his tragic flaw of overreaction; a stark contrast to Hamlet whose tragic flaw is procrastination. When asked by Claudius what he will do when Hamlet returns to Denmark to avenge his father in Act 4 Scene VII, he replies Ã¢â¬ËTo cut his throat iÃ¢â¬â¢ the church. Ã¢â¬Ë This directly mirrors the church scene, where Claudius is vulnerable yet Hamlet refrains from acting out his revenge. This displays LaertesÃ¢â¬â¢ as a traditional revenger, willing to act, unlike Hamlet who considers the legitimacy of the ghostÃ¢â¬â¢s claims before even considering revenge. Laertes does not take much persuading from Claudius. However it is this over-willingness to act that is the cause of his death. In his rage at the death of both his father and sister, he plots with Claudius to kill Hamlet; a move which kills him as he himself is poisoned by the sword intended for Hamlet. Over-willingness to act is LaerteÃ¢â¬â¢s hamartia; and so Laertes also conforms to this tragic skeleton laid out by Aristotle. However perhaps more tragic, although not conforming to AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s works, is the question; why is Laertes so willing to act? His father was voyeuristic, deceitful and loquacious Ã¢â¬â he used Ophelia as a tool to gain favour with the king, and spied on Laertes to ensure his name was not tarnished. He was a far from noble man, his life summarised accurately by his death; behind an arras spying on someone. In this regard, it is questionable whether LaertesÃ¢â¬â¢ brashness in relation to revenge is justified. From the aspects of PoloniusÃ¢â¬â¢ character seen in the play, it does not appear that he was a Ã¢â¬ËgoodÃ¢â¬â¢ father; in fact he seems villainous at times Ã¢â¬â for example when he disallows Ophelia to express her love for Hamlet, then makes her feel to blame when Hamlet puts on his antic disposition. It is questionable whether Polonius Ã¢â¬ËdeservesÃ¢â¬â¢ to be avenged. Hamlet seems to simply shrug off the murder of Polonius, noting of what the little worth he was when referring him simply as Ã¢â¬ËgutsÃ¢â¬â¢. This could be seen as tragic, as the worthlessness of PoloniusÃ¢â¬â¢ character implies that Laertes died for nothing. One explanation is that Laertes may have been inclined to act out revenge with such little persuasion due to the fact Polonius was all he and his sister had. Since Hamlet put on his antic disposition, Ophelia lacked a love interest, as did Laertes assuming he did not have a lover in Paris; moreover they were not allowed to have a love interest due to Polonius caring too much about his image than the wishes of his children. With no love interests, and apparently no motherly figure, they were left with no figure of authority but Polonius, which may be the cause for LaertesÃ¢â¬â¢ brash attitudes towards revenge. Also likely is the concept of family honour driving LaertesÃ¢â¬â¢ revenge, a concept which an Elizabethan audience may have empathised with. The death of Ophelia in a modern day sense is considered tragic, like any suspected suicide. However during Elizabethan times her death would be considered on a more religious basis; the priest comments on the Ã¢â¬ËquestionableÃ¢â¬â¢ nature of her death, and whether it would warrant a Christian burial. This is an example of how the definition of tragedy shifts over time; even Laertes does not seem as shaken by the announcement of his sisterÃ¢â¬â¢s death compared to his fathers, perhaps due to the nature of her death. OpheliaÃ¢â¬â¢s death is considered a tragedy in a modern day sense, but at the time her death not so much tragic, but rather symbolised the death of innocence in the play, as part of the build up to the climatic deaths in the final act. However, OpheliaÃ¢â¬â¢s death is an example of how Ã¢â¬ËHamletÃ¢â¬â¢ is able to transcend traditional ideas on tragedy, and can hold relevance to modern day interpretations of what is considered tragic. In the 21st century, a tragic event is where an individual or group suffers to a greater extent than they are perceived to deserve. It could be argued that however you spin the story of Polonius and his family, they will always conform to this modern interpretation of tragedy, as well as the traditional tragedy theorised by Aristotle. Ophelia is being perpetually commanded and ordered throughout the play by the significant characters in her life; first Laertes, when he displays his disapproval of her intimacy with Hamlet, and Polonius when he conducts his own Ã¢â¬Ëplay within a playÃ¢â¬â¢, ordering her to talk to Hamlet while he observes behind an arras. She has little to no freedom, despite the fact she has Ã¢â¬Ëdone nothing wrongÃ¢â¬â¢; unlike her brother who had enjoyed the Ã¢â¬Ëprimrose path of dallianceÃ¢â¬â¢ while in Paris, and the voyeuristic indulgence of Polonius. The death of Ophelia to a modern audience is tragic, so in this sense the story of Polonius and his family is a tragedy. I agree that the story of Polonius and his family should be considered Ã¢â¬Ëa tragedy within a tragedyÃ¢â¬â¢. Their story contains many of the frequently occurring aspects of a tragedy; death, love, murder, revenge and surveillance. As well as this, the family conforms to the concept of a tragedy as laid out by Aristotle. Finally, the story of Polonius and his family conforms to what is considered tragic in the present, as the tragedy has transcended the period in which the play was written. References Primary Text Shakespeare, W (~1600) Ã¢â¬ËHamletÃ¢â¬â¢ London: Penguin (2005) Secondary Texts Aristotle (350 BC) Ã¢â¬ËPoeticsÃ¢â¬â¢ London: Penguin (1997) Heywood, T (1612) Ã¢â¬ËAn Apology for ActorsÃ¢â¬â¢ New York: ScholarsÃ¢â¬â¢ Facsimiles & Reprints (1999) Mangan, M (1991) Ã¢â¬ËA Preface to ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s TragediesÃ¢â¬â¢ London: Longman.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Robert Falcon Scott was born on June 6,1868. Everyday he rode to school by his pony, Beep. Sometimes he slipped from his horse, but he never afraid with that. At the age of fifteen Scott became a midshipman. He began to conquered his bodily weakness and his childish faults in the navy. In 1891 he graduate from the amnion and he get a lieutenant. Scott was plan this trip to south pole with Sir Clement and everything will prepared. Scott has a high standard of conduct, Intelligence, scientific, knowledge and qualities of adventure in the Antarctic.In the other hand Scott was assured of a fine career in the Ana and he realized that the expedition to the pole would give him new and exciting experience, and also opportunities for scientific research, so he accepted the advice of Sir Clement. Everything will prepared seriously because this Journey became extreme round trip, so it make him very busy. Actually he ship, it was brought from Scotland to London, named Ã¢â¬Å"Discovery'. The expe dition began from London through Atlantic Ocean and arrived in new Zealand.Then over Rose sea, for the further journey they took several dogs, ponies, sledge and another thing they need. In the first expedition Scott lose three member of his party. Trip or the pole was got extreme weather and it become serious problem to us. They study everything in south pole, one of this are about magnetism, meteorological observations, and animal live, also any other aspect. Aftermath they were sail for home and Scott had done splendidly, and he return to find himself famous. The year between first and second Journey, coot married with Miss Kathleen Bruce, artist and sculptor in 1908.On September 14, 1909 coot's son was born and name Peter Markham Scott. In the second Journey he took another ship, named Ã¢â¬Å"Terra novaÃ¢â¬ and he prepared all with seamen. The second trip need more power because it happen in winter,and it like the first. When they arrived the centre pole they put country flag . In the other hand they get a new experience, but in another hand they got difficulties return from the pole. Winter season make them very ill,day by day conditions grew worse and sometimes they took ore than an hours to drag the sledge a mile.Even in this condition they still to write anything about their condition it seem that they will die. In fact Just only few alive on the return Journey. Comment I think the story is very attractive to know because about the explore to Antarctic. Perhaps hardly ever everyone go there. The story give us about description in the Antarctic. Antarctic is the centre of magnetism and have extreme temperature that somebody never alive in there. It also get us information about discipline to arrange everything we need.
Saturday, September 14, 2019
The first impression that the average person might have when reading about the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) is that it appears to be greatly beneficial to Americans with disabilities. Certainly, it was intended to be of assistance to these individuals; however, a question remains regarding the degree of assistance that it provided to the, or if it was beneficial at all. The intention of the ADA was to open access to all aspects of society, to people with all kinds of disabilities.It was intended to prevent discrimination against individuals with disabilities in the same way that previous civil rights laws protected people from discrimination based on race or biological sex. The ADA is divided into five sections, called Ã¢â¬Å"titles. Ã¢â¬ These titles each address certain topics including various regulations for businesses and organizations of almost any size or purpose, requirements for communications over the telephone, and other provisions in terms of providing physical access, as well as other forms of access to the disabled population.Overall, the ADA does provide the valuable protections to many Americans. It allows individuals with disabilities to have access to education, employment, housing who may not have previously had opportunities in these areas. However, the ADA is not without its issues. The language of the ADA at times goes beyond regulating easily defined and delimited impairments that have objectively determined bases to protecting individuals defined as Ã¢â¬Å"impairedÃ¢â¬ merely because they are affected by peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s perceptions of a condition or illness that they possess.The language of the ADA raises other issues as well, including the suggestions that the ADA is little more than an enforced quota system or that the measure Ã¢â¬Å"infantilizesÃ¢â¬ the individuals that it claims to protect. This paper will be used to summarize the ADA and describe its history, as well as some of its effects. Some of the indi viduals involved with ADA and its policymaking will be addressed. Finally, this paper will be used to discuss the assumptions and values inherent in the ADA and some recommendations for its change. The History of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 The ADA is a civil rights bill.When it passed into law on July 26, 1990 the people who wrote it expected that it would protect individuals with disabilities in the same manner that the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The ADA is divided into five sections, known as Ã¢â¬Å"titles. Ã¢â¬ These titles define, suggest, or regulate a number of different issues, including: 1. Equal employment opportunities 2. Access to public services overseen by state and local governments 3. Access to both publicly- and privately-run businesses for people with disabilities whenever possible 4. The availability of telephone and other voice communication services to the hearing impaired 5.Definitions of the breadth, depth, and limits of ADA protections and o f limitations to state immunity, as well as describing technical assistance programs of importance to businesses (Eckert, 2003). Regardless of the size, all state and local governments fall under the provisions of the ADA. The provisions of the ADA also apply to all sizes of business, regardless of how many people are employed by those businesses. Certain exceptions are made, however, when compliance would cause undue hardship for the business that needs to make modifications. Before the 1960s, people with disabilities were often removed from the general population.Previous generations assumed that individuals with disabilities were Ã¢â¬Å"sufferingÃ¢â¬ due sins either they or their ancestors had committed. Children with disabilities were sent to separate schools from other children, if they were educated at all. The first attempts to care for American citizens with disabilities did not come until the nineteenth century, when life was a little easier and people were able to turn to doing charitable acts. These acts sprung from the community having a Ã¢â¬Å"humanitarian religious background that stressed the responsibility of the successful to help the unfortunateÃ¢â¬ (Rubin & Roessler, 2001, p.6). The first efforts made benefited individuals who were deaf or blind; only later were attempts made to assist individuals who were mentally retarded or mentally ill (Rubin & Roessler, 2001, pp. 6-7). Regardless of these advances, new laws were passed in the second half of the nineteenth century that were based on the scientific theories of eugenics. These laws prohibited people with mental or emotional disabilities from marrying, among other things, to remove them from the gene pool (Rubin & Roessler, 2001, pp.15-18), eventually leading to individuals with disabilities being segregated, including segregation through special education and vocational education. Eventually, as expectations for social responsibility waned, the government took on the role of setting guidelines as to how people with disabilities were treated. Progress first came in terms of workerÃ¢â¬â¢s compensation laws and rehabilitation acts. The Depression slowed much of the progress being made in rehabilitation services, but eventually the improved economy resulted in the creation of a number of rehabilitation programs (Rubin & Roessler, 2001, pp.31-32). The period between 1954 and 1972 for that time to be called Ã¢â¬Å"The Golden Era of RehabilitationÃ¢â¬ due to all of the legislation enacted during this time (Rubin & Roessler, 2001, p. 34). One of these pieces of legislation was the Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1954, which authorized funding for vocational education and expanded services. In addition, amendments to the Social Security Act provided aid for individuals with disabilities (Rubin & Roessler, 2001, pp. 33-36).Despite these efforts, individuals with disabilities still faced discrimination. Even the Civil Rights Act, passed in 1964, did not protect peop le with disabilities from discrimination. However, the Civil Rights Act was the first among this kind of legislation to formulate actual penalties against those states that did no enforce the Act. These penalties included Ã¢â¬Å"termination of financial assistance if states and communities receiving federal funds refuse to comply with federal desegregation ordersÃ¢â¬ (Rubin & Roessler, 2001, p. 42).The Civil Rights Act, however, did provide the foundation for other legislation, such as the Architectural Barriers Act, passed in 1968. In what was quite possibly the most important move for the disabled community, the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 removed many physical and intellectual barriers to individuals with disabilities. The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 was one of these acts of legislation. The ADA built upon previous acts by prohibiting discrimination against individuals with disabilities, as described in an earlier section.The sociopolitical model came into being at about the same time the ADA was passed. As the medical model fell out of favor, having a disability was no longer considered a stigma and the isolation of individuals with disabilities was slowly put aside. Instead of seeking to segregate the disabled or trying to Ã¢â¬Å"fixÃ¢â¬ them, the new model is attempting to integrate them and bring equality to the disabled population. Individuals with disabilities were brought into the educational system and into the workforce and were perceived as equals perhaps for the first time in history.Both the ADA and the legislation that reauthorized its provisions addressed many areas of discrimination against individuals with disabilities. As part of this focus on discriminatory practices, Title I of the ADA addressed pre-employment testing and screening. According to Power (2000) the ADA Ã¢â¬Å"mandated when employment testing should be done, and described how testing must relate to the essential functions of the job (p. xiii). Testing accommo dations under the ADA were divided into the categories of medium, time limits, and content (Power, 2000, p. xiii).These limits allowed more individuals with disabilities to have wider scope when taking pre-employment tests, permitting them to test in areas for which they may have previously been arbitrarily deemed unsuited. Positive and Negative Impacts of the ADA However, not all of the effects of this legislation were necessarily positive ones. The ADA undeniably fostered ill feelings in the American public, based on the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s perception of the ADA being nothing more than legislation that enforced quotas or as legislation that encouraged abuse through its widely inclusive language.This last perception was reinforced by the popular culture in the media, such as its mocking treatment in segments of the popular cartoons The Simpsons and King of the Hill. These two programs featured episodes in which characters deliberately abused the ADA, forcing situations by which they fi t the apparently loose provisions of the act. In the mind of the public, Homer deliberately overeating to fit the definition of Ã¢â¬Å"morbid obesityÃ¢â¬ and the efforts of Hank HillÃ¢â¬â¢s co-workers to force various personal issues into compliance with the ADA provisions showed how the ADA could reinforce or even reward malingering.The King of the Hill episode took a sly jab in this vein at the ADA by its conclusion, which showed the entire office being Ã¢â¬Å"protectedÃ¢â¬ under the auspices of the ADA, with only the manager being held responsible for doing any work (Krieger, 2000, p. 20). The last scene of that particular King of the Hill episode may be of importance for several reasons. First, as already noted, it sends a subtle message to the American public, many of whom do not have informed opinions about the act, about the ADA.Second, as noted by Cary LaCheen, a parallel exists between the way that the media portrays the ADA and the manner upon which it is ruled in the courts (cited in Krieger, 2000, p. 25). Finally, this final scene might have played on fears that the American public had at the time of the Ã¢â¬Å"high levels of job instability and worker displacementÃ¢â¬ that characterized the then-current labor market and that potentially bred Ã¢â¬Å"insecurity, fear, and resentment toward employment protections extended to members of disadvantaged groups (Krieger, 2000, p.28). While these publicly-held sentiments are not caused by the ADA itself, they are a response to the frequently vague and over-broad language and interpretations of the language of the act itself. Schwochau and Blanck (2000) suggest that the ADA has actually had a negative effect on the employment of people with disabilities or, at the very least, that the ADA has not created improved working conditions for individuals with disabilities.The authors indicate that at the time that their article was written the figures produced in the surveys provided by the National Org anization on Disability actually reflected a decline in the number of such individuals who were employed (Schwochau & Blanck, 2000, p. 271). The same surveys indicated that educational barriers still remain, with individuals with disabilities still obtaining unequal education despite being largely integrated into the general education population.However, the surveys indicated that there had been some increase in employment for severely disabled individuals (Schwochau & Blanck, 2000, p. 271). Two interesting and potentially disturbing aspects exist in the ADA legislation. One such aspect is that it legislates peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s perceptions; that is, if the perceptions of others cause a person to be perceived as disabled, then that person is protected under the provisions of the ADA (Boyd, 2002, p. 2). Boyd (2002) lists HIV status, disfiguring facial scars, and morbid obesity as three such perceived disabilities (p. 2).Another difficult aspect is that the ADA, intended to prevent discrim ination, is discriminatory in and of itself. It does not recognize the rights of all individuals with disabilities; rather, it recognizes the rights of only those individuals whose disabilities meet the statutory definition of disability (Colker, date, p. 98). While the drafters of this act chose to use longstanding definitions of certain disabilities, adopting some definitions from Section 504 from the Rehabilitation Act, it is clear from the above paragraph that these definitions contain some gray areas.Because individuals who do not meet these defined limits are not covered by the ADA, people who lack disabilities are unable to bring reverse discrimination suits or otherwise Ã¢â¬Å"challenge favorable treatment of individuals with disabilitiesÃ¢â¬ (Colker, date, p. 98). This narrow concept of who is covered by the ADA also has the potential to create a type of affirmative action program for individuals with disabilities (Colker, date, p. 98). Previous incarnations of affirmati ve action programs have not been effective for those individuals they allegedly protected.Rather, there has been some argument that affirmative action programs that emphasize the Ã¢â¬Å"needsÃ¢â¬ rather than the Ã¢â¬Å"rightsÃ¢â¬ of certain groups actually Ã¢â¬Å"infantilizeÃ¢â¬ those individuals (Burke, 1997, p. 271). Who is Involved in the Debate? The debate on the ADA is widespread and covers many areas of society. On the one hand, the National Organization on Disability and other similar groups stand in advocacy of individuals with disabilities. Educators at all levels have also taken up the banner of accessibility and inclusion.Economists, on the other hand, appear to be arguing that the ADA is not as beneficial as it was once thought it could be. Regardless of these positions, however, the influence of the ADA continues to be debated. One source of current debate comes from the technology sector. Because the ADA grants equal access to individuals with disabilities, on e question that currently exists is whether or not this guarantee of access extends to commercial and private websites (National Council on Disability, 2003, par. 1). This debate extends from Title 3 of the ADA and the definition of the word Ã¢â¬Å"placeÃ¢â¬ as used in that title.If individuals with disabilities are unable to access these site through electronic aids such as synthetic speech or Braille outputs, are the parties who run these sites liable to provide them access (National Council on Disability, 2003, par. 12). Although a great deal of the access issue can be resolved with a small amount of additional programming effort, how far is it necessary to go to be in compliance with the ADAÃ¢â¬âor does it extend at all to the Internet? Although the answer to this question has been ruled as Ã¢â¬Å"noÃ¢â¬ in the past, advocacy groups continue to argue that the provisions of the ADA cover more than just physical spaces.One perception of the ADA is that the law Ã¢â¬Å"forc esÃ¢â¬ equality by requiring employers to treat individuals with disabilities differently to permit them to function as other employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ equals. However, as Schwochau and Blanck (2000) points out, companies are already in the position of purchasing equipment by which employees can perform their jobs in an equitable fashion. Purchasing a piece of equipment that enables an individual with a disability to do his or her job should be considered Ã¢â¬Å"no more than standard practiceÃ¢â¬ (p. 312).However, the cost of the accommodations that required by the ADA may outweigh the benefits to the employer, Ã¢â¬Å"resulting in market inefficiencies and welfare lossesÃ¢â¬ (Schwochau, Blanck, 2000, p. 308). The primary assumption of the ADA appears to be that a person with a disability is as capable as any other worker might be, given the chance. The National Organization on Disability (NOD) paints a rosy picture of this assumption, reminding employers that among other things: o Hiring individuals with disabilities eases concern over the labor supplyo Job performance ratings and retention rates for individuals with disabilities are equal to or higher than for other workers, while at the same time exhibiting lower absenteeism rates o Tax benefits are available to companies that hire individuals with disabilities (National Organization on Disability Website) However, these assumptions may not be as widespread in practice as they are in discussion. According to Maheady and Fleming (2005) it is common for nurse educators and facility administrators to Ã¢â¬Å"voice concerns and hold preconceived notions of success or failure before the student [with a disability] even steps on their floorÃ¢â¬ (p.52). These concerns and notions include the accommodations that will need to be made and the issue of patient safety (Maheady & Fleming, 2005, p. 52). Recommendations and Rationale for Change One potentially helpful change would be to change the language of the ADA, p articularly the language concerning the terms Ã¢â¬Å"reasonable accommodationÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"undue hardship,Ã¢â¬ as well as the language that defines disabilities. The language currently in use in these areas of the ADA is both vague and broad in its application.As shown by the exaggerated situations used to comedic effect by the television programs described above, the vague definitions of these terms are open to abuse. If it is reasonable for a person to provide assistance for a person with a hearing impairment to use the telephone, why would it be unreasonable to provide the addict depicted in the King of the Hill episode with lowered lights and a quiet environment? At what point does Ã¢â¬Å"undue hardshipÃ¢â¬ begin if there is no financial cost to the business?When does the Ã¢â¬Å"reasonable accommodationÃ¢â¬ for one worker begin to impose on another if that imposition is not defined by physical space? In many cases, however, this episode demonstrates the opposite of how individuals with disabilities are treated. Rather than making an extra effort to comply with the reasonable accommodation aspect of the ADA, employers seek to avoid making changes in the workplace. However, individuals with disabilities would often stay in the workforce longer if they would get accommodation.Ultimately, changing the language of the ADA to reflect making these accommodations would save the government money in the long run, by removing people from the welfare rolls, which, ultimately, would serve the public goodÃ¢â¬âand would serve businessÃ¢â¬âby avoiding higher taxes. Another limitation of the ADA is its lack of precision in matters of Internet access. The ADA is legislation of the 1990s; new concerns now exist in terms of online communication that might be addressed by a modified ADA. Although computers were online to a certain extent when the ADA was compiled, the Internet has become far more pervasive since that time.Technology does exist that enables individuals with hearing or visual impairments to use the Internet; however, what is the obligation to the employer to provide this costly equipment to a single employee? Would a refusal to provide this equipment be covered by the Ã¢â¬Å"undue hardshipÃ¢â¬ area of the ADA, or would it constitute discrimination. Without an update to the language of the ADA, situations created by current and future technology will remain unaddressed. Rather than rely on the input of a small selection of interest groups, it would seem wise to widen the scope of information gathering for these proposed modifications.Community seminars could be used to form local focus groups, which in turn could produce reports to be compiled into a block of regional or nationwide research. These seminars would have the beneficial side effects of informing the public and enabling them to feel empowered as they provide their input on something that has an effect on their working lives. At the same time, these focus gr oups could serve to change the opinion of the public about individuals with disabilities, as some people in the general public have the impression that members of the disabled population do not want to work.In addition to these focus groups, councils formed by those individuals who work with the disabled community and members of the business community might be established to discuss and define an alternative to the terms Ã¢â¬Å"undue hardshipÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"reasonable accommodation. Ã¢â¬ These and other questions should be addressed to improve both public perception of the ADA and its application in the business world Finally, changes could also be made to the ADA in terms of defining disability. Public perception of a person with a disability is that of a person in a wheelchair.This stereotyped perception leads to wheelchair ramps being installed outside of public buildings, such as schools, or even outside of some privately owned business and retail stores. However, not all disabilities are visible. Some individuals have disabilities related to heart disease or immunodeficiency diseases. These individuals often have difficulty breathing or lack energy and lack the ability to climb stairs. Their only alternative in these situations is that of walking long distances through these ramps, which may actually aggravate the conditions that they possess.By creating a more inclusive list of disabilities and their definitions that is reflective of these hidden and unfamiliar conditions, more appropriate accommodations might become more available to a greater portion of the disabled community. Conclusion Throughout the history of the profession, social workers have been involved in seeking social equality and social justice for people caught in an unequal and often unfair system. Within this role, social workers have often actively participated in the political process.Therefore, social workers have an obligation to lobby local, state, and even federal legislatur es to pass laws that grant businesses money to make the specific accommodations required by people with disabilities. Some funding already exists; however, it does not meet the needs of either individuals with disabilities or of the businesses seeking to accommodate them. The ADA created a new realm of opportunity for individuals with disabilities. However, while well intentioned, some of the aspects of the ADA are problematic. Economic results do not reflect the predictions made by the supporters of the bill before it passed into law.In addition, some areas of the ADA are in need of modification to reflect todayÃ¢â¬â¢s concerns. Although the ADA is a stride in the right direction for individuals with disabilities, the journey toward equal rights and access for these individuals remains a long one. In truth, the ADA should not be considered a finished product, neither now or in the future. As society changes and the use of technology grows, the ADA will need to be redesigned and r edefined to take these changes into consideration. The future of the United States is formed by the future of its people, no matter who they are or what their abilities might be.For that reason, the ADA as it exists now should be considered the starting point, not the ending point, for this piece of legislation. References Boyd, S. (2002). Americans with Disabilities Act: How this act affects you and your business. Heritage, 6(3). http://bus. cba. utulsa. edu/buslaw/Articles/Americans%20With%20Disabilities%20Act. pdf Burke, T. F. (1997). On the rights track: The Americans with disabilities act. Comparative Disadvantages? Social Regulations and the Global Economy, Pietro S. Nivlola, Ed. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press. 242-318. http://bus.cba. utulsa. edu/buslaw/Articles/Americans%20With%20Disabilities%20Act. pdf Colker, R. (2005). The disability pendulum: The first decade of the Americans with Disabilities Act. New York: New York University. Eckert, J. M. (2003). People with disabilities, employment, & the workplace: A ready-reference guide for Illinois Businesses. Chicago: Statewide Independent Living Council of Illinois. Krieger, L. (2000). Backlash against the Americans with Disabilities Act: Interdisciplinary perspectives and implications for social justice strategies. Boalt Working Papers in Public Law.Retrieved 13 May 2007 from http://repositories. cdlib. org/cgi/viewcontent. cgi? article=1089&context=boaltwp Maheady, D. C. , & Fleming, S. E. (2005, Summer). Nursing with the hand you are given. Minority Nurse. 50-54. National Council on Disability (2003). When the Americans with Disabilities Act goes online: Application of the ADA to the Internet and the Worldwide Web. http://www. ncd. gov/newsroom/publications/2003/adainternet. htm National Organization on Disability. (2001). The top 10 reasons to hire People with disabilities. http://www. nod. org/index. cfm?fuseaction=page. viewPage&pageID=1430&nodeID=1&FeatureID=253&redirected=1&CFID=1307 6268&CFTOKEN=7389169 Power, P. W. (2000). A guide to vocational assessment. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed. Rubin, S. E. , & Roessler, R. T. (2001). Foundations of the vocational rehabilitation process. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed. Schwochau, S. , & Blanck, P. D. (2000). The economics of the Americans with Disabilities Act, Part III: Does the ADA disable the disabled? Berkeley Journal of Employment and Labor Law, 21: 271-313. Retrieved 10 May 2007 from http://www. boalt. org/BJELL/21-1/21-1-271. pdf