Thursday, May 23, 2019
Employee Motivation Essay
First and foremost, I want to thank , who has been my advisor and mentor throughout my studies, and served as the chair of my discourse committee. Without sirs patient criticism, continual support, effective teaching, and constant challenge and encouragement to give my very best efforts to my undertakings, I would non have learned what I needed to nor been prep bed to complete this dissertation and future live on.Much of what I have learned about the craft of research has come from Sir, and I am forever grateful for the opportunity to have studied under his guidance. I to a fault want to give thanks to my who has contributed immensely to my professional and personal teaching over the past two years. I would non have made it through this research without the support, encouragement, teaching, and friendship of fellow students in the program. CERTIFICATEThis is to certify that the dissertation tit conduct EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION IN HYDRABAD INDUSTRY LTD submitted by embodies the bonaf ied work done by her under supervision of I also declargon that this dissertation is a result of her effort and no part of this research has been published earlier or been submitted as a project by her for both degree or diploma for any institute or university.Today HIL is a multi intersection point, multi locational organization with a formid open network of branches, depots, stockiest and personnel spread all over India. HIL macrocosm backed by the organizational and practiced expertise of the Birlas, also has a Board of directors comprising experienced personnel from Business, Finance and Industry. The Board is chaired by Mr. C. K. Birla. HILs carrefour range include part Cement roof sheets in the name of CHARMINAR and MALABAR, Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Blocks and Panels called AEROCON, Calcium Silicate insulation product called HYSIL, Jointing material for Gaskets and Plant and machinery for these products.The Hyderabad industries LIMITED, Thrissur is find 10 km away fr om the Thrissur town. The exact place where the company is situated is Athani, which is an industrial atomic number 18a. This company was incorporated in the year 1985 and commenced production in 1986 in the name as MALABAR BUILDING PRODUCTS, which was a joint venture by HIL and KSIDC (Kerala State Industries Development Corporation. Later in the year 2005 April the company was merged with the HIL all in all from the KSIDC. And in the very(prenominal) year the company changed its name to HYDRABAD INDUSTRIES LIMITED. About 200 employees be working in HIL, Thrissur as a strong. In that 110 employees are working in plant, 72 are office staffs and 18 are bargaining staffs.The plant is working for 24 hours and there are three shifts per day. The whole plant is completely automated. The HIL Thrissur plant is producing only the AC roofing sheets in the name of CHARMINAR. Charminar AC Roofing Sheets have been the No. 1 roofing sheets of pick for more than 50 years now, providing roof ing to millions of low terms ho usances and to industries, commercial communication channeles and for several everyday utilities. Charminar sheets are widely feeln for their superior superior and durability. The vulgar materials employ in the production process are Fibre, fly ash, rag pulp and cement. Among these raw(prenominal) materials Fibre is importing from Brazil and Canada and cement is mainly bought from ACC cements.The beau monde mainly sells their products through dealers who are selected by the company. The finished products are mainly sold in the south India, especially in Tamil Nadu. The company has a visionary management and motivated team up of dynamic workers sharing common vision and working in the union. The company is moving ahead with to innovate and result excellent production. HIL is providing to have an operational efficiency compactable with global standards. As a socially organization, it has contributed signifi sack uptly towards eco-friendliness and various social causes. The company has involved in conducting a lot of community welfare programme. In this year the company conducted a welfare programme named SOUHRUTHAM 2008.Mission and Vision of Hyderabad Industries Limited To maintain leadership in Fibre cement products industry and dilate complementary products and run to strengthen the core business of edifice products. Fulfilment of market need with cost effective solutions for enduring and enhanced client satisfaction. Striving for excellence in all the area of companys operation. Innovative solutions to create world class products and services fostering collective wisdom and commitment of employees to create corporate and chemical group culture and values which they are proud to be part of. Maintain impartial balance between development and environmental call for of the society. Quality insurance policyProvide products and services that adequately and consistently meet specified and set ineluctably of cu stomers by ? Continues upgrade of product value and by ? Building customer responsive environment ? In making and ram homeance of the products and services explore & Development. look and Development Centre ofHyderabad Industries Limited is fully equipped with latest state-of-art technology, equipment and test facilities including Pilot Plants situated in ultra modern spacious building blanket an area of about 11000 sft of main Building and about 16000 sft area of Pilot Plant. HIL, R & D centre is recognized by discourse section of Science and technology Government of India.HIL have been conferred with the DSIR National Award for R & D efforts in industry for the year 2000 in the area of new materials for AEROCON INSTA PANEL Dedicated team of scientists and engineers are constantly working for product up gradation, optimum manipulation of raw materials, development of substitute materials, new products and new product applications, saving unquestionable amount of foreign ex change for the country. The R & D Division has contributed in the following specific areas Identification and development of environment friendly building products with uphill market postulate. Emphasis on process optimization, cost reduction and development of value added products. Effective usage of energy, water and waste material. Absorption of imported technical know-how. Development of new products i. e. Aerocon Insta Panels, Access Flooring form, pressed sheets, fire protection boards, Light weight AAC Blocks, non-asbestos jointing material for automobile industry etc. Quality Policy Provide products and services that adequately and consistently meet specified and identified needs of customers by ? Continues upgrade of product value and by ? Building customer responsive environment ? In making and deliverance of the products and services Philosophy HYDERABAD INDUSTRIES LIMITED is committed to good Corporate Governance. The Company has been following good principles o f business over the years by following all the laws and regulations of the land with an emphasis on accountability, trusteeship, and integrity.It is our responsibility to ensure that the organization is managed in a manner that protects and furthers the interests of our stakeholders. industrial PROFILE Asbestosis a group of tapralswith long, thin fibrouscrystals. The word asbestos is derived from aGreekadjective meaning i nearinguishable. TheGreekstermed asbestos the miracle mineral because of its soft and pliant properties, as hale up as its ability to withstand heat. Asbestos became increasingly popular among manufacturers and builders in the late 19th century due to its resistance to heat, electricity and chemical damage, its sound assiduousness and tensile strength. When asbestos is employ for its resistance to fire or heat, the fibers are ofttimes mixed with cementor woven into fabric or mats.Asbestos was utilise in just about products for its heat resistance, and in the past was used on electric oven and naughtyplate wiring for itselectrical insulationat elevated temperature, and in buildings for its noncombustibleand insulating properties,tensile strength, flexibility, and resistance to chemicals. The main product ASBESTOS CEMENT SHEET is primarily a cement based product were about 10-15% asbestos fiber is needed to reenforce the cement is weather proof, even through it absorbs moisture, the water entrust not pass through the product. Asbestos cement is used for corrugated sheets, slates, flat sheet for tool pens, cladding molded fitting, water system rain water gutters, down pipes, under ground pipes and sewer pipes, skills, chalkboards. Most of the asbestos consumed globally is chrysolite. Russia, Kazakhstan is major producers of asbestos.The studies across the macrocosm had not found any increased risk of carrier to the workers even at the trains of fiber/cubic centimeter, whereas the Indian chrysolite cement industry works well bellow 0. 5 fiber/cubic centimeter. Historic usage Asbestos was named by the ancient Greeks who also recognized certain hazards of the material. The Greek geographerStraboand the Roman naturalistPliny the eldernoted that the material damaged lungs of slaves who wove it into cloth. Charlemagne, the eldestHoly Roman Emperor, is said to have had a tablecloth made of asbestos. WealthyPersians, who bought asbestos imported over theHindu Kush, stupid(p) guests by cleaning the cloth by simply exposing it to fire.According toBiruniin his book ofGems, any cloths made of asbestos were called shastakeh. Some of the Persians believed the fiber was fur from an animal namedsamandar that lived in fire and died when exposed to water. Some archeologists believe that ancients made shrouds of asbestos, wherein they burned the bodies of their kings, in assure to preserve only their ashes, and prevent their being mixed with those of wood or some other combustible materials commonly used in funeral pyres. Ot hers assert that the ancients used asbestos to make perpetual wicks forsepulchralor other lamps. In more upstart centuries, asbestos was indeed used for this purpose.Although asbestos causes skin to itch upon contact,ancient writingsindicates that it was prescribed for diseases of the skin, and particularly for the itch. It is possible that they used the termasbestosforalumen plumosum, because the two terms have often been confused throughout history. Asbestos became more widespread during the industrial revolution in the 1860s it was used as insulation in the U. S. and Canada. Development of the first commercial asbestos mine began in 1879 in theAppalachianfoothills ofQuebec. By the mid 20th century uses included fire retardant coatings, concrete, bricks, pipes and fireplace cement, heat, fire, and acid resistant gaskets, pipe insulation, detonator insulation, fireproof drywall, flooring, roofing, lawn furniture, and drywall joint compound.Approximately 100,000 people in the Uni ted States have died, or leave alone die, from asbestos exposure related to ship building. In theHampton Roadsarea, a shipbuilding center,mesothelioma occurrence is seven times the national rate. Thousands of metric tons of asbestos were used inWorld War IIships to wrap the pipes, line the boilers, and counterbalance engine and turbine parts. There were approximately 4. 3 million shipyard workers in the United States during WWII for every thousand workers about fourteen died of mesothelioma and an unknown number died from asbestosis. Asbestos fibers were once used in automobilebrake padsand shoes. Since the mid-1990s, a majority of brake pads, new or replacement, have been anufactured instead with linings made of ceramic, carbon, metallic andAramid fiber(TwaronorKevlarthe same material used inbullet-proof vests). Kent, the firstfiltered cigaretteon the market, used crocidolite asbestos in its Micronite filter from 1952 to 1956. The first documented death related to asbestos was in 1906. In the early 1900s researchers began to notice a large number of early deaths and lung problems in asbestos mining towns. The first diagnosis ofasbestosiswas made in England in 1924. By the 1930s, England correct ventilation and made asbestosis an excusable work related disease, about ten years sooner than the U. S. The termMesotheliomawas not used in medical literature until 1931, and was not associated with asbestos until sometime in the 1940s.The United States government and asbestos industry have been criticized for not acting quickly enough to inform the everyday of dangers, and to swerve public exposure. In the late 1970s court documents proved that asbestos industry officials knew of asbestos dangers and tried to conceal them. In Japan, particularly afterWorld War II, asbestos was used in the manufacture ofammonium sulphatefor purposes of rice production, sprayed upon the ceilings, iron skeletons, and walls of railroad cars and buildings (during the 1960s), and used for energy efficiency reasons as well. Production of asbestos in Japan peaked in 1974 and went through ups and downs until about 1990, when production began to drop severely.Commercially available roofing materials The weather proofing material is the topmost or outermost layer, exposed to the weather. Many unlike kinds of materials have been used as weather proofing material Thatchis roofing made of plant stalks in imbrication layers. WheatStraw, widely used in England, France and other parts of Europe. Sea grass, used in coastal areas where there areestuariessuch as Scotland. Has a longer life than straw. Claimed to have a life in excess of 60 years. Shingles, calledshakesin North America. Shinglesis the generic term for a roofing material that is in many overlapping sections, regardless of the nature of the material.The word is also used specifically to denote shingles made of wood. Red cedar. Life expectancy, up to 30 years. However, young ontogeny red cedar has a short life expectancy. noble cost. Should be allowed to breathe. Hardwood. Very durable roofing found in ColonialAustralian architecture, its use now limited torestorations. Slate. High cost with a life expectancy of up to 200 years. Slate cleaves into thin sheets, making it much lighter than concrete tiles, though heavier than sheet steel and other light roof coverings. Stone slab. Heavy stone slabs (not to be confused with slate) 1-2 thick were formerly used as roofing tiles in some regions in England.Stone slabs require a very heavyweight roof structure, but their weight makes them storm proof. An antiquated roofing material. Ceramictile. High cost, life of more then 100 years. Imbrex and tegula, style dating back to ancient Greece and Rome. Metal shakes or shingles. Long life. High cost, suitable for roofs of 3/12 pitch or greater. Because of the flexibility of metal, they can be manufactured to lock together, giving durability and reducing assembly time. automatically seame d metal. Long life. High cost, suitable for roofs of low pitch such as 0. 5/12 to 3/12 pitch. Concrete, usually reinforced with fibres of some sort. Concrete tiles require a stronger roof structure than slate, as some owners have found to their cost. Asphalt shingle, made of bitumen embedded in an organic or fiberglass mat, usually covered with colored, man-made ceramic grit. Cheaper than slate or tiles. Various life span expectancies. Asbestosshingles. Very long lifespan, fireproof and low cost but now rarely used because of health concerns. Membrane. Membrane roofing is in large sheets, generally fused in some way at the joints to form a continuous surface. Thermosetting plastic(e. g. EPDM rubber). Synthetic rubber sheets adhered together with contact adhesive or tape. native application is big boxful store with large open areas and little vertical protrusions. Thermoplastic(e. g. PVC,TPO,CSPE).Plastic sheets welded together with hot air creating one continuous sheet membra ne. Can be rewelded with the exception of CSPE. Lends itself well to both big box and small roof application because of its hot air weld ability. Modifiedbitumen heat welded, asphalt adhered or installed with adhesive. Asphalt is mixed with polymers such as APP or SBS, then applied to fiberglass and/or polyester mat, seams sealed by locally melting the asphalt with heat, hot mopping of asphalt, or adhesive. Lends itself well to all applications. Built-Up Roof Multiple plies of asphalt saturated organic felt or coat fiberglass felts. Plies of felt are adhered with hot asphalt, coal tar pitch or adhesive. Sprayed-in-Place Polyurethane Foam (SPUF) Foam sprayed in-place on the roof, and then coated with a wide variety of coatings, or in some instances, covered with gravel. Fabric Polyester. PTFE (synthetic Fluor polymer) embedded infibre glass. Metal roofing. Generally a relatively inexpensive building material, unless pig bedis used. Galvanized steelfrequently manufactured wit h wavy corrugations to resist lateral flexing and fitted with exposed fasteners. Widely used for low cost and durability. Sheds are normally roofed with this material. cognize asGal iron, it was the most extensively used roofing material of 20th century Australia, now replaced in popularity by steel roofing coated with an alloy of zinc and aluminum, claimed to have up to four times the life of galvanized steel. Standing-seam metal with concealed fasteners. Mechanically seamed metal with concealed fasteners contains sealant in seams for use on very low sloped roofs. Flat-seam metal with soldered seams. candy Clear windows have been used since the invention of glass to cover small openings in a building. They provided humans with the ability to both let light into rooms while at the same time keeping inclement weather outside. scum is generally made from mixtures of sand and silicates, and is very brittle. Modern glass curtain walls can be used to cover the entire facade of a bu ilding. Glass can also be used to span over a wide roof structure in a space frame. Ceramics, these are such things as tiles, fixtures, etc. Ceramics are mostly used as fixtures or coverings in buildings. Ceramic floors, walls, counter-tops, even ceilings. Many countries use ceramic roofing tiles to cover many buildings. Ceramics used to be just a specialized form of clay-pottery firing in kilns, but it has evolved into more technical areas. Foam to a greater extent recently synthetic polystyrene or polyurethane foam has been used on a limited scale. It is light weight, substantially shaped and an excellent insulator. It is usually used as part of a structural insulated panel where the foam is sandwiched between wood or cement. Department Profile The organization has mainly 5 departments.They are 1. HUMAN RESOURCE DEPARTMENT 2. FINANCE DEPARTMENT 3. PURCHASE DEPARTMENT 4. MARKETING DEPARTMENT. 5. PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT Organization chart of Human Resource Department pic The managin g human resource in the organization is an Copernican lying-in. Human resource department is doing the management of human resource in the organization. Hyderabad Industries Limited follows a system in HR department that each authority coming under the General Manager (works) has to report directly to General Manager (Works) in the hierarchy. This testament helps to speed up the communication flow in the organization. ORGANISATION map OF FINANCE DEPARTMENTSound financial decisions have been one of the critical practices in the success of Hyderabad Industries Limited, Thrissur proper planning and long vision of the financial managers help the company to undergo to smooth sail. All monetary transactions of the company are handled and brought to account by the finance department. ORGANISATION CHART OF PURCAHSE DEPARTMENT The purchase manager is the only person who is the having the prime authority to make orders for the purchase of raw materials. After referring the stock report of raw materials and finished goods, the purchase manager purchase the raw- materials in order to ensure the continuous flow of production.ORGANISATION CHART OF PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT The production manager and his team are responsible for realizing the visions of the company within constraints of technical possibility. This involves coordinating the operations of various production activities and maintains a good flow of work without any blockage. ORGANISATION CHART OF MARKETING DEPARTMEN Product Profile Charminar Aerocon panels. Charminar Aerocon Panel is a unique factory developed product that fulfills the following Green Building concept. Raw material contains up to 40% Fly Ash (recycled power plant waste). Excellent Thermal and Sound Insulation. A good fire rating up to 2 hrs. -Depending upon thickness. Factory cured panel -Dry construction at site. Completely re-locatable. Proven suitable for seismic and cyclone given over zones Other Benefits Fast track construction -Tong ue and groove joining system allows faster construction. Light weight -allows easy handling and erection. Excellent water & white ant resistance. Can be given any surface finish Applications Charminar Roofing Sheets are an ideal building material for roofing and side-cladding in Industrial/ situation Plant Cladding Control Room Prefabricated site offices Prefabricated Houses, Canteens and Rest Rooms Partitions Police Stations School Buildings Telephone Exchanges ATM Cubicles Charminar AC roofing Sheets. Charminar AC Roofing Sheets have been the No. 1 roofing sheets of choice for more than 50 years now. Providing roofing to millions of low cost houses and to industries, commercial businesses and for several public utilities. Charminar sheets are widely known for their superior quality and durability. Special Features Strong & durable Weather-proof Less noise during rains Non-corrosive Charminar Concreted Roofing Sheets are made from Fibre, Portland cement and Binder. Fibre in these sheets acts as reinforcement like steel in RCC. These are owing to their quality, strength & durability.These are manufactured to exceed the requirements of strength specified in the relevant Indian standards. Standards IS 459-1992 Specification for Corrugated and Semi-Corrugated Asbestos Cement Sheets. IS 3007 1999 Code of practice for laying of Asbestos Cement Sheets, Part-I, Corrugated Sheets. IS 1626 (Part3) 1994 Roofing fittings. Applications Charminar Roofing Sheets are an ideal building material for roofing and side-cladding in Industrial buildings of all types Food Storage Go downs Warehouses & Cold Storages Poultry farms, dairy farms and other agricultural sheds Garages, Verandahs and Outhouses Houses School buildings popular Utility Sheds Cooling Towers Cinema Halls Stadiums Railway & Bus Stations CHAPTER-2 INTRODUCTION TO EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION INTRODUCTIONThe project work entitled a reflect on employee penury with special reference to Hyderabad Industries Ltd Thrissur is mainly conducted to identify the factors which pass on motivate the employees and the organizational ranges in Hyderabad Industries Ltd, Thrissur. Managements basic chisel is the effective utilization of human resources for procurements of organizational objectives. The personnel management is concerned with organizing human resources in such a way to get maximum output to the enterprise and to develop the talent of people at work to the fullest satisfaction. motif implies that one person, in organization context a manager, includes another, say an employee, to engage in action by ensuring that a channel to satisfy those needs and aspirations becomes available to the person.In addition to this, the strong needs in a direction that is satisfying to the latent needs in employees and harness them in a manner that would be functional for the organization. Employee demand is one of the major issues faced by every organization. It is the major task of every manager to motivate his assistants or to create the give to work among the subordinates. It should also be remembered that a worker may be immensely dependent of doing some work nothing can be achieved if he is not allowing to work. A manager has to make appropriate use of motivation to enthuse the employees to follow them. Hence this studies also direction on the employee motivation among the employees of Hyderabad Industries Ltd.The data needed for the study has been collected from the employees through questionnaires and through direct interviews. Analysis and variant has been done by using the statistical tools and datas are presented through tables and charts. RESEARCH PROBLEM The research problem here in this study is associated with the motivation of employees of Hyderabad Industries Limited, Thrissur. There are a variety of factors that can influence a persons take aim of motivation some of these factors include 1. The level of pay and benefits, 2. The perceived fairness of promotion system within a company, 3. Quality of the working conditions, 4. Leadership and social relationships, 5.Employee information 6. Job security 7. biography development opportunities etc. Motivated employees are a great asset to any organisation. It is because the motivation and Job satisfaction is clearly linked. Hence this study is focusing on the employee motivation in the organisation. The research problem is formulated as follows literature Review Rensis Likerthas called motivation as the core of management. motif is the core of management. indigence is an effective instrument in the hands of the management in inspiring the work force . It is the major task of every manager to motivate his subordinate or to create the will to work among the subordinates .It should also be remembered that the worker may be immensely capable of doing some work, nothing can be achieved if he is not willing to work . creation of a will to work is motivation in simpl e but true sense of term. Motivation is an important function which very manager performs for actuating the people to work for accomplishment of objectives of the organization . Issuance of well conceived instructions and orders does not mean that they will be followed . A manager has to make appropriate use of motivation to enthuse the employees to follow them. Effective motivation succeeds not only in having an order accepted but also in gaining a determination to see that it is executed efficiently and effectively.In order to motivate workers to work for the organizational goals, the managers must(prenominal) determine the motives or needs of the workers and provide an environment in which appropriate incentives are available for their satisfaction . If the management is successful in doing so it will also be successful in increasing the willingness of the workers to work. This will increase efficiency and effectiveness of the organization . There will be punter utilization of resources and workers abilities and capacities. The concept of motivation The word motivation has been derived from motive which federal agency any idea, need or emotion that prompts a man in to action. Whatever may be the behavior of man, there is some stimulus behind it . Stimulus is dependent upon the motive of the person concerned. Motive can be known by studying his needs and likings.There is no universal possibility that can explain the factors influencing motives which control mans behavior at any particular point of time. In general, the different motives operate at different times among different people and influence their behaviors. The process of motivation studies the motives of individuals which cause different type of behavior. 2. 2 translation of Motivation. According to Edwin B Flippo, Motivation is the process of attempting to influence others to do their work through the possibility of gain or reward. 2. 3 Significance of Motivation Motivation involves getting t he members of the group to pull weight effectively, to give their loyalty to the group, to carry out properly the purpose of the organization.The following results may be expected if the employees are properly motivated. 1. The workforce will be better satisfied if the management provides them with opportunities to fulfill their physiological and psychological needs. The workers will cooperate voluntarily with the management and will contribute their maximum towards the goals of the enterprise. 2. Workers will tend to be as efficient as possible by improving upon their skills and knowledge so that they are able to contribute to the progress of the organization. This will also result in increased productivity. 3. The rates of labors turnover and absenteeism among the workers will be low. 4.There will be good human relations in the organization as friction among the workers themselves and between the workers and the management will decrease. 5. The number of complaints and grievances will come down. incident will also be low. 6. There will be increase in the quantity and quality of products. Wastage and scrap will be less. Better quality of products will also increase the public image of the business. 2. 4 Motivation Process. 1. Identification of need 2. Tension 3. Course of action 4. Result Positive/ detrimental 5. Feed back 2. 5 Theories of Motivation. Understanding what motivated employees and how they were motivated was the focus of many researchers following the publication of the Hawthorne study results (Terpstra, 1979).Six major approaches that have led to our understanding of motivation are Mcclellands Achievement Need Theory, Behavior Modification theory Abraham H Mallows need hierarchy or Deficient theory of motivation. J. S. Adams Equity Theory, Vrooms forethought Theory, Two factor Theory. McClellands Achievement Need Theory. According to McClellands there are three types of needs Need for Achievement (n Ach) This need is the strongest and lasting motivating factor. Particularly in case of persons who satisfy the other needs. They are constantly pre occupied with a desire for improvement and lack for situation in which successful outcomes are directly correlated with their efforts.They set more difficult but achievable goals for themselves because success with easily achievable goals hardly provides a sense of achievement. Need for Power (n Pow) It is the desire to control the behavior of the other people and to manipulate the surroundings. Power motivations positive applications results in domestic leadership style, while it blackball application tends autocratic style. Need for affiliation (n Aff) It is the related to social needs and creates friendship. This results in composition of informal groups or social circle. Behavioral Modification Theory According to this theory people behavior is the outcome of favorable and unfavorable past circumstances. This theory is based on learning theory. Skinner conducted his research es among rats and school children.He found that stimulus for desirable behavior could be strengthened by rewarding it at the earliest. In the industrial situation, this relevance of this theory may be found in the installation of financial and non financial incentives. More immediate is the reward and stimulation or it motivates it. masturbation of reward incase of low standard work may also produce the sought after result. However, researches show that it is generally more effective to reward desired behavior than to punish undesired behavior. Abraham H Maslow Need pecking order or Deficient theory of Motivation. The intellectual basis for most of motivation thinking has been provided by behavioral scientists, A.H Maslow and Frederick Heizberg, whose published works are the Bible of Motivation. Although Maslow himself did not apply his theory to industrial situation, it has wide impact for beyond academic circles. Douglous Mac Gregor has used Maslows theory to interpret specific problems in personnel administration and industrial relations. The crux of Maslows theory is that human needs are arranged in hierarchy composed of five categories. The lowest level needs are physiological and the highest levels are the self actualization needs. Maslow starts with the formation that man is a wanting animal with a hierarchy of needs of which some are refuse ins scale and some are in a higher scale or system of values.As the lower needs are satisfied, higher needs emerge. Higher needs cannot be satisfied unless lower needs are fulfilled. A satisfied need is not a motivator. This resembles the standard economic theory of diminishing returns. The hierarchy of needs at work in the individual is today a routine tool of personnel trade and when these needs are active, they act as powerful conditioners of behavior- as Motivators. Hierarchy of needs the main needs of men are five. They are physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, ego needs and self actualization ne eds, as shown in order of their importance. Fig (2. 1) The above five basic needs are regarded as striving needs which make a person do things.The first model indicates the ranking of different needs. The second is more helpful in indicating how the satisfaction of the higher needs is based on the satisfaction of lower needs. It also shows how the number of person who has experienced the fulfillment of the higher needs gradually tapers off. Physiological or Body Needs The individual move up the go responding first to the physiological needs for nourishment, clothing and shelter. These physical needs must be equated with pay rate, pay practices and to an extent with physical condition of the job. Safety The next in order of needs is safety needs, the need to be free from danger, either from other people or from environment.The individual want to assured, once his material needs are satisfied, that they are secure and will continue to be satisfied for foreseeable feature. The safe ty needs may take the form of job security, security against disease, misfortune, old age etc as also against industrial injury. Such needs are generally met by safety laws, measure of social security, prophylactic labor laws and collective agreements. Social needs Going up the scale of needs the individual feels the desire to work in a cohesive group and develop a sense of belonging and identification with a group. He feels the need to love and be loved and the need to belong and be identified with a group.In a large organization it is not easy to build up social relations. However close relationship can be built up with at least some fellow workers. Every employee wants too feel that he is wanted or accepted and that he is not an alien facing a hostile group. Ego or Esteem Needs These needs are reflected in our desire for status and recognition, enjoy and prestige in the work group or work place such as is conferred by the recognition of ones merit by promotion, by participati on in management and by fulfillment of workers urge for self expression. Some of the needs relate to ones esteem e. g. need for achievement, self confidence, knowledge, competence etc.On the job, this means praise for a job but more important it means a feeling by employee that at all times he has the respect of his supervisor as a person and as a contributor to the organizational goals. Self realization or Actualization needs This upper level need is one which when satisfied provide insights to support future research regarding strategic guidance for organization that are both providing and using reward/recognition programs makes the employee give up the dependence on others or on the environment. He becomes growth oriented, self oriented, directed, detached and creative. This need reflects a state defined in terms of the extent to which an individual attains his personnel goal.This is the need which totally lies within oneself and there is no demand from any external situation o r person. J. S Adams Equity Theory Employee compares her/his job inputs outcome ratio with that of reference. If the employee perceives inequity, she/he will act to correct the inequity lower productivity, reduced quality, increased absenteeism, voluntary resignation. Vrooms Expectation Theory Vrooms theory is based on the belief that employee effort will lead to performance and performance will lead to rewards (Vroom, 1964). reinforce may be either positive or negative. The more positive the reward the more likely the employee will be highly motivated.Conversely, the more negative the reward the less likely the employee will be motivated. Two Factor Theory Douglas McGregor introduced the theory with the help of two views X assumptions are conservative in style Assumptions are modern in style. X Theory Individuals inherently dislike work. People must be coerced or controlled to do work to achieve the objectives. People prefer to be directed Y Theory People view work as being as natural as wreak and rest People will exercise self direction and control towards achieving objectives they are committed to People learn to accept and seek responsibility. 2. 6 Types of Motivation. inseparable motivation occurs when people are essentially motivated to do something because it either brings them pleasure, they think it is important, or they feel that what they are learning is morally significant. Extrinsic motivation comes into play when a student is compelled to do something or act a certain way because of factors external to him or her (like money or good grades) 2. 7 Incentives An incentive is something which stimulates a person towards some goal. It activates human needs and creates the desire to work. Thus, an incentive is a means of motivation. In organizations, increase in incentive leads to better performance and vice versa. Need for Incentives Man is a wanting animal.He continues to want something or other. He is never fully satisfied. If one need is sa tisfied, the other need need arises. In order to motivate the employees, the management should try to satisfy their needs. For this purpose, both financial and non financial incentives may be used by the management to motivate the workers. Financial incentives or motivators are those which are associated with money. They include wages and salaries, fringe benefits, bonus, retirement benefits etc. Non financial motivators are those which are not associated with monetary rewards. They include intangible incentives like ego-satisfaction, self-actualization and responsibility. INCENTIVESFinancial Incentives Non-financial incentives Wages and Salaries. Competition Bonus Group recognition Medical reimbursement Job security Insurance value Housing facility Knowledge of result Retirement benefits. Workers participation. Suggestion system. Opportunities for growth 2. 8 Motivation is the key to performance improvementThere is an old axiom you can take a horse to the water but you cannot force it to drink it will drink only if its thirsty so with people. They will do what they want to do or otherwise motivated to do. Whether it is to excel on the workshop floor or in the ivory tower they must be motivated or driven to it, either by themselves or through external stimulus. Are they born with the self-motivation or drive? Yes and no. If no, they can be motivated, for motivation is a skill which can and must be learnt. This is essential for any business to survive and succeed. Performance is considered to be a function of ability and motivation, thus Job performance =f(ability)(motivation)Ability in turn depends on education, experience and training and its improvement is a slow and long process. On the other hand motivation can be improved quickly. There are many options and an uninitiated manager may not even know where to start. As a guideline, there are broadly seven strategies for motivation. There are broadly seven strategies for motivation. Positiv e reinforcement / high expectations Effective straighten out and punishment Treating people fairly Satisfying employees needs Setting work related goals Restructuring jobs Base rewards on job performance Essentially, there is a bedcover between an individuals actual state and some desired state and the manager tries to reduce this gap.Motivation is, in effect, a means to reduce and manipulate this gap. CHAPTER-3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY SCOPE OF THE STUDY The study is intended to evaluate motivation of employees in the organization. A good motivational program affair is essential to achieve goal of the organization.If efficient motivational programmes of employees are made not only in this particular organization but also any other organization the organizations can achieve the efficiency also to develop a good organizational culture. Motivation has variety of effects. These effects may be seen in the context of an individuals physical and mental health, productivity, absent eeism and turnover. Employee delight has to be managed in more than one way. This helps in retaining and nurturing the true believers who can deliver value to the organization. Proliferating and nurturing the number of true believers 1is the challenge for future and present HR managers. This means innovation and creativity. It also means a change in the tilt for HR polices and practices.The faster the organizations nurture their employees, the more successful they will be. The challenge before HR managers today is to delight their employees and nurture their creativity to keep them a bloom. This study helps the researcher to realize the importance of effective employee motivation. This research study examines types and levels of employee motivational programmes and also discusses management ideas that can be utilized to innovate employee motivation. It helps to provide insights to support future research regarding strategic guidance for organizations that are both providing and usi ng reward/recognition programs Objectives of the study Primary objective 1.To study the important factors which are needed to motivate the employees. Secondary Objective. 1. To study the effect of monetary and non-monetary benefits provided by the organization on the employees performance. 2. To study the effect of job promotions on employees. 3. To learn the employees satisfaction on the interpersonal relationship exists in the organization. To provide the practical suggestion for the improvement of organizations performance Research methodology. Research is a systematic method of finding solutions to problems. It is essentially an investigation, a recording and an analysis of evidence for the purpose of gaining knowledge.According to Clifford woody, research comprises of defining and redefining problem, formulating surmisal or suggested solutions, collecting, organizing and evaluating data, reaching conclusions, testing conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulated hyp othesis2 Sampling Design. A sample design is a finite plan for obtaining a sample from a given population. Simple random sample distribution is used for this study. Universe. The universe chooses for the research study is the employees of Hyderabad Industries Ltd. Sample Size. Number of the sampling units selected from the population is called the size of it of the sample. Sample of 50 respondents were obtained from the population. Sampling Procedure.The procedure adopted in the present study is probability sampling, which is also known as chance sampling. Under this sampling design, every item of the frame has an equal chance of inclusion in the sample. Methods of Data Collection. The datas were collected through Primary and secondary sources. 1. Primary Sources. Primary data are in the form of raw material to which statistical methods are applied for the purpose of analysis and interpretations. The primary sources are sermon with employees, datas collected through questionnaire. 2. Secondary Sources. Secondary datas are in the form of finished products as they have already been treated statistically in some form or other.The secondary data mainly consists of data and information collected from records, company websites and also discussion with the management of the organization. Secondary data was also collected from journals, magazines and books. 3. Nature of Research. Descriptive research, also known as statistical research, describes data and characteristics about the population or phenomenon being studied. Descriptive research answers the questions who, what, where, when and how. Although the data description is factual, accurate and systematic, the research cannot describe what caused a situation. Thus, descriptive research cannot be used to create a causal relationship, where one variable affects another.In other words, descriptive research can be said to have a low requirement for internal validity. 4. Questionnaire. A well defined questionnaire that is used effectively can gather information on both overall performance of the test system as well as information on specific components of the system. A defeated questionnaire was carefully prepared and specially numbered. The questions were arranged in proper order, in union with the relevance. 5. Nature of Questions Asked. The questionnaire consists of open ended, dichotomous, rating and ranking questions. Pre-testing A pre-testing of questionnaire was conducted with 10 questionnaires, which were distributed and all of them were collected back as completed questionnaire.On the basis of doubts raised by the respondents the questionnaire was redialed to its present form. Sample A finite subset of population, selected from it with the objective of investigating its properties called a sample. A sample is a representative part of the population. A sample of 50 respondents in total has been randomly selected. The response to various elements under each questions were totaled for the purpose of various statistical testing. Variables of the Study. The direct variable of the study is the employee motivation Indirect variables are the incentives, interpersonal relations, career development opportunities and performance appraisal system.
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