Thursday, February 21, 2019
Attachment Paper Essay
Bowlbys chemical bond surmise provides a strong framework for the comprehension of some(prenominal)(prenominal) the nature of bordering births and the link among the associations of children and how this affects their relationships as pornographics, as well as, various wellness issues concerning adults. The following investigate endeavor reviews the literature concerning the inclemency and reliability of the fixing elbow rooms that can be a predicting factor as to how adults engage in the constitution of relationships.Research presented will too at flow to eluci reckon how supplement movements during childhood relate to adult associate health issuesThe following essay will define bail theory as described by Bowlby and Ainsworth followed by an analysis how adjuncts classed in too soon childhood dumbfound an restore on attachments make during adulthood. The main emphasis of the look into will examine the evidence concerning attachment assessment methods.Fi nally, the research essay will examine the empirical evidence depicting how attachment predicts relationship tendencies in adults along with the risk factors for certain health related issues from the status attachment style. John Bowlbys theory of attachment has been instrumental in the advancement of modern psychological science. harmonize to Bowlby (1982), attachments exist to bring sisters into determination proximity with their c atomic number 18givers at that placeby protecting the babe from harm and predation. The idea of attachment was first postulated by Sigmund Freud and cogitateed on the attachment relationship amid m some other and child.Freud analyzed this interaction using psychoanalytic thought, which assumes that an unconscious endeavour for physical gratification is the basis of attachment. Bowlby (1982) moved a agency from Freuds psychoanalytic perspective and proposed an ethological theory of attachment. The foundation of this perspective depicts the in herent survival spirit as the catalyst for attachment. At the close to basic direct, Bowlby theorized that attachment formation is dependent on the formation of trust in the infant. Trust develops from the level of sensitivity the c argiver provides the infant during times of stress.The result of this interaction is the infant producing an adaptive response and those responses, according to Bowlby (1982), into mental representations, or working models, that be countd to guide the behavior of attachment relationships over time, carrying over into adulthood. The existence of the contrary types of attachment styles was empirically demonstrated by Ainsworth and colleagues (1978) in studies with infants using the quaint Situation procedure. The unknown Situation procedure involved observing a childs behavior when they were separated from their base phencyclidine hydrochloride.Ainsworth and colleagues separate the attachment styles of the infant based on the observed strength o f the bond between the infant and their phencyclidine (Ainsworth, et al. , 1978). The various types of attachment styles ar typically classified into three categories including just attachment, nauseating/ incertain attachment, and avoidant attachment. These attachment styles will be discussed further in relationship to their impact on adult relationships and the effects they have on the general health in adults.A quaternary attachment style was classified much subsequently than what was presented in the Strange Situation, called disorganized attachment, and accounts for only about five to ten percent of the community (Berk, 2007). This fourth attachment style is non part of the research presented in this essay due to the fact that this attachment system is uncommon and there is bantam research focusing on its effect on adult relationships or on the health of adults. There ar generally 2 distinct groups that researchers fall into when studying the implications of attachm ent in adulthood.Those who atomic number 18 typically trained in the developmental tradition, tend to emphasize adults representation and how this whitethorn influence the level of attachment they have with their own children. The other group, which is typically trained in accessible psychology, usually focuses their management on the finish of attachment theory to analyze the processes of adult romantic relationships and personality. These two groups ar apt to emphasize different points of view to the theory, and conceptualize their findings in diverging ways.For the purpose of this essay, empirical research from a sociable psychology perspective will be utilized. The primary focal point will be on the domain of interpersonal relationships between adults from the three attachment categories and their relationships. Secondly, research will be discussed in regards to the link up between adult attachment styles and variables such as cognitive functioning and sideline in social activities. Lastly, this essay will show support for the proposed theory that attachment styles of children has been link to the development of disease and chronic illness in adults.Ainsworth and colleagues (1978), through their investigate termed Strange Situation, coined the terms to describe the different attachment styles that infants sleep together. The first and most common form of attachment is secure attachment. expert attachment is traditionally measured in terms of separation care (Pearce, 2009). Infants who are securely attached are quickly comforted upon the return of their attentive primary phencyclidine hydrochloride after a period of separation and exposure to a stranger in the room.unwaveringly attached infants also presentment unsuppressed exploration of their environment while the primary caregiver is in jackpot (Ainsworth et al. , Bowlby, 1982). Avoidant attachment is the second form of attachment that infants can display. Those who exhibit this form of attachment generally do non display any separation anxiety and also show no preference towards the primary caregiver upon their return. It has been theorized that a reason that infants do show a preference towards their caregiver is because the caregiver may be causing the infant stress which the infant instinctively tries to avoid.The third form of attachment style is the anxious / uncertain form of attachment. Anxious attachment is comparable to secure attachment in that the infant clings to their primary caregiver and displays separation anxiety (Berk, 2007). The primary expiration between the behaviors of securely attached infants and anxiously / ambivalent individuals is that, in the latter, the infants emotions are much pronounced. Anxious infants are not comforted by the caregiver easily, and aggressive behaviors may be displayed when the caregiver is present.This type of behavior is considered to be an adaptive response that is used to solicit a response from an otherw ise unresponsive caregiver. Attachment Theory and Adult Relationships Many have argued that identifying both(prenominal) the beginnings and the extent of emotions that are perplexd in a relationship is overcritical if one seeks to understand the essential aspects of a relationship. Many of the most vehement emotions arise during the formation, the maintenance, the disruption, and the renewal of attachment relationships (Bowlby, 1982).Surprisingly, there is little research to date that attempts to explain the rationale for the cause of emotions in relationships specifically how significant relationship experiences at critical developmental stages, forecast the intensity of emotions practiced in adult attachment relationships. One of the first studies conducted in this area was by Main and colleagues (1985) using the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) as a narrative-based interview in which participants provide five adjectives that describe their relationship to from each one paren t and then provide specific memories that support each adjective. some(prenominal) studies have associated attachment styles to relationship gratification however, there is a sensed lack of understanding as to what mechanisms of the attachment styles that influence relationship satisfaction have been scarcely understood. Attachment plays a pivotal percentage in the dynamics of how adults interact with each other and this interaction relates to how relationships are formed and maintained. Results produced from the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) (Main et al, 1985), indicated that adults who have formed secured attachments during childhood are much likely to form romantic partnerships that are warm and responsive.Securely attached adults tend to have more positive views of themselves and their partners and in the way they perceive their relationships (Simpson & Rholes, 2012). Securely attached adults characteristically experience lower levels of anxiety than those with other attac hment styles. A possibility for the lower levels of anxiety in securely attached individuals is that failure in the relationship does not put up an anxiety-provoking, distracting concern, because the expected attachment, on average, tends to be supportive, and reassuring (McWilliams & Bailey, 2010).Independent success is not dependent on the relationship outcome for securely attached adults as it may be for those with other attachment styles. Securely attached individuals focus on building greater indecorum with their attachment figures and experience functional anger, which generally facilitates more constructive, relationship-enhancing goals (Simpson et al, 2007). The anxious / ambivalent attached adult is unremarkably viewed as being fearful and avoidant when in most situations and especially when forming meaty relationships. The fear response is usually a fear of failure.The possibility of failure elicits anxiety provoking concerns for the anxious / ambivalent person (Sim pson et al, 2007). These individuals view themselves as in unfastened of either providing love and intimacy to others or being capable of receiving love and intimacy from romantic partners. Insecurity is not manifested the same in all individuals but the basic mistrust of love and closeness is a common theme among this level of attachment in adults. Those who are anxious / ambivalent adults may be troubled with high levels of stress and display a higher tendency towards impulsiveness in their relationships.This stress is compounded if both members of the relationship demonstrate characteristics of this type of attachment style. In contrast to those who have secure attachments, adults who present characteristics of anxious / ambivalent attachment, typically experience and demonstrate little positive and more negative emotions in their relationships (Simpson et al, 2007). These individuals habitually are concerned with fears of being abandoned, misused, or failing to meet their basi c take of security when engaging in relationships.For this reason, those with this attachment style typically experience less positive emotions in their relationships and report a high level of negativity when describing their relationships. Bowlby (1982), as well as other researchers, believe that close relationships formed during childhood with primary caregivers who are supposed to be providing the account work for the establishment of security and trust, have a direct impact on how adults form and maintain relationships across the feelspan. The third attachment style is avoidant.Avoidant infants are indifferent or ignore the return of the caregiver after separation (Westen, 2006). These children may not necessarily reject the attention of the caregiver but they do not tend to seek out the attention of the caregiver as well. The avoidant style of attachment negates energy away from intimacy and hampers positive emotions in personal relationships. For those experiencing this f orm of negative attachment believe that becoming close to their partners heightens their fear of rejection.Considerable research indicates that different forms of attachment styles direct individuals to foster their emotions and behaviors in different ways (Simpson et al, 2007). Typically, those who have avoidant style of attachment avidly seek to diminish the possibility of negative relationships that could potentially create the danger of rejection or abandonment. This form of attachment can also be seen as a type of self-preservation strategy. Attachment styles and the relation to chronic health issues in adultsMany researchers and psychologists have argued that the experiences that incur in first childhood hold a prestigious place in influencing later life story outcomes. Researchers have also focused their attention on how the role of adverse incidents gone through in childhood has strong links towards adult physical illness. Furthermore, the tonus of close relationships, es pecially marital relationships, affects immune functioning, rendering individuals vulnerable to various diseases (Coan, Schaefer, & Davidson, 2006).Researchers have also focused on the role of primaeval adverse experiences in laying the foundations for adult physical illness (Puig et al, 2012). The different level of childhood attachment styles is positively match to the incidence of chronic illness as adults. Incorporating assessments of relationship interaction in the early stages of human development may give insight of how the quality of childhood attachments in infancy directly impact adult health.Secure attachment is considered to be the best functional form of all of the attachment forms and thus is hypothesized to have the increased likelihood of general better health in adulthood. In relation to cancer, attachment may be unrelated to the development of cancer, but a positive association between secure attachment ratings and cancer could have emerged because those with se cure attachment may be more likely to survive cancer (Puig et al, 2012). According to the attachment theory proposed by Bowlby (1982), the quality of early care that children receive is internalized and then shapes their social functioning in adulthood.Research suggests that infant attachment relationships are associated with aspects of health in childhood that may be coupled to health across the life span (Anderson & Whitaker, 2011). The findings of the research conducted by Anderson & Whitaker (2011) suggest that individuals who were classified as secure during the origins of care giving report the fewest health problems as adults than those who were inconsistently secure or consistently perilous. Other research indicates that adults forming perilous attachment styles as children uniquely predict categories of physical illness (McWilliams & Bailey, 2012). hazardous attachments include the anxious / ambivalent and avoidant style of attachment. Generally speaking, those persons w ho have positive hazardous attachments during childhood have an increased susceptibility to stress. Stress has been linked to a wide range of psychological and physical ailments in adolescents and adults. Those exhibiting unstable attachments have also been theorized to have a greater propensity towards shopping mall abuse and food addictions, which has been known to cause numerous health roblems. Individuals with insecure attachment often display refractory behaviors in that they do not seek help for these types of behaviors and also have difficulty seeking prudish medical attention when health issues arise most likely due to their basic mistrust of people who are in a face to help them. The most logical assessment for this behavior is strongly suggested to be linked to the lack of strong bonding relationships formed during infancy (McWilliams and Bailey, 2010).According to the Center on the Developing Child at Harvard (2011), the consequences of adversity early in life can b e serious and long- unchanging, affecting the dusts ability to, for example, regulate metabolism, fight disease, and maintain a sizable heartas well as a healthy brain. bring down toxic stress in early childhood is therefore an authorized strategy for lifelong health promotion and disease prevention. Findings of recent developmental research have concluded that individuals who are insecurely attached tend to have poorer quality relationships across the first 20 years of life (Simpson, Collins, Tran, & Haydon, 2007).The quality of adult relationships is possible causes of chronic stress which inhibits biological processes, which adds insecure adults to encounter more physical illness later in life than those who have formed secure attachments. Individuals classified as having the anxious / ambivalent are prone to inflammatory responses when exposed stressors (Gouin et al. , 2008). Anxious attachment ratings were more strongly associated with feeble health conditions and the rati ngs for avoidant attachments were found to be greater.Avoidant attachment ratings were significantly associated with those conditions that primarily involve symptoms of pain, such as arthritis, back pain, severe headaches, and other forms of chronic pain (McWilliams & Bailey, 2010). Anxious attachment rating were associated as involving the cardiovascular system, including stroke, heart attack, and high blood pressure. With the propensity of insecure attachments leading to the onrush of various health conditions, it is reasonable to assume that those with inadequate health conditions lead to relationship discord and thus foster relationship insecurity.Bowlby (1980) believed that lifes deepest and most intense emotions arise in the foundation of attachment relationships. Bowlbys concept of internal working models was a catalyst for the increased interest in the continuity of attachment patterns from infancy through adulthood (Westen, et al, 2006). These relationships are rooted in t he attachment formations that develop during early childhood with caregivers. Until recently, little research has been conducted on the correlation between the different attachment styles children experience as determinants of the experience and development of romantic relationships formed as adults.The preceding(prenominal) reviewed research suggests that these interactions may imply a link to forming secure relationships experient during earlier periods of development. Studies directed at the association between attachments and learned dispositions regarding relationships are growing in popularity. This type of research is of interest to anyone who is engrossed in the study of attachment in adulthood, regardless of affiliation to a psychology study or training. Attachment theories remain dominant throughout the life story (Ainsworth, 1989).Secure attachment proves to be the strongest indicator that adults will form committed, lasting romantic relationships. Insecure attachment origins supports the general theory that adults are extremely susceptible by situational events and have coping mechanisms that are consistent with the event form of insecurity they manifest (Simpson, et. al. , 2012). Those who have experienced anxious/ambivalent attachments have been found to display greater dysfunctional anger toward their partners and more distressed when encountered with a fear-inducing situation and have been noted to receive less support from their partners.