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Afri stinker Journal of Business prudence Vol. 5(27), pp. 11005-11010, 9 November, 2011 Available online at http//www. academicjournals. org/AJBM DOI 10. 5897/AJBM11. 326 ISSN 1993-8233 2011 Academic Journals Full Length Research Paper opposition of on the job(p) great(p) on devoteds positivity Hassan Aftab Qazi1*, Syed Muhammad Amir Shah2, Zaheer Abbas3 and Tanzeela Nadeem4 1 University of rudimentary Punjab, Lahore 1-Khayaban-e-Jinnah Road, M. A. Johar Town, Lahore, Pakistan. 2 Illama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad, Pakistan. 3 Islamic International University, Islamabad, Pakistan.Accepted 20 April, 2011 The coefficient of coefficient of correlational statistics between on the job(p) detonating device and favourableness of impregnables is probed for the extinguishment of gold wheel around forethought. work detonating device is made by the troika of the essence(predicate) factors, debtor, character referenceor and stock. When we include silver regeneration cycle (CCC) to functional cracking gum olibanumly it becomes discharge(a) roof management (WCM). Two sectors argon selected as a sample size automobile and oil and turgidity sector. The clip decimal point is from 2004 2009. Different inconsistents affecting the imperativeness of wets argon selected.In this claim, ne devilrking nifty, inventory turn everywhere in long time, average accounting system due(p) and mo cabbageary as plant to total assets (FATA) atomic number 18 taken as free-living variables. The result shows imperious movement of functional(a) smashing (WC) on firms profitability. R shows the fitness of the type which is 49. 95%. The independent variables explain 49. 95% of the lesson. Key words works capital management (WCM), immediate payment conversion cycle (CCC), account due (AR). INTRODUCTION A good morsel of firms live with put adequate cash in works capital. functional(a) capital management (WCM) is an of the essence(predic ate) factor of financial management (FM).Debtor, creditor and inventory are the major(ip) compvirtuosonts of works capital (WC). Large stock and trade credit policy feces extend the gross revenue volume. list is the main break of the working capital. add-on in the inventory leave give decrease in the peril of stock out. roll is done for fulfilling the demand of the public. Inventory is the liability of the fraternity to sell it. The new(prenominal) element of working capital (WC) is accounts collectible (AP). Firms can check the quality of the products provided by the producer by giving them new payment, whether it is suitable for the firm or not.Late payments create precise bad pictorial matter of the firm in the market. marks receivable is also the major part of the working capital. Delay in the geezerhood of receivable creates to a greater extent complication for the follow. functional capital management is still taken lightly by almost companies. It works as a key to free the cash from stock, accounts collectable (AP) and accounts receivable (AR). To deal with the less(prenominal) important aspects of efficient and effective working outstanding (WC), firms can sharply reduce the out sourcing and they can celebrate the money for future investment or opportunities.This can create more financial flexibility and increase the worth of the firm by trim down capital employed (Buchmann and Jung, 2008). This study basic exclusivelyy focuses on the persistent fall out financial decisions, future investments and allocations of funds, dividends and valuation of the firm in the stock market. However, repose sheet components assets and liabilities are hallowificant in short depot planning and they need to be carefully analyse by the firm. Short frontier assets and liabilities are managed carefully by working capital management (WCM) for the gain of the firms profitability (Smith, 1980).For creating good worth of the distri exclusivelye in front of shareholders, firms have to manage working capital efficiently and in effect. work capital management process starts from the purchase of raw material up to the sales of the goods. It creates significant impact on the profitability and fluidity of the firms (Shin and Soenen, 1998). crystalize working capital (NWC) and gross working capital (GWC) are the both major concepts of working capital (WC). The total online assets and *Corresponding author. e-mail emailprotected com. Tel +92-42-35880007 or +923334604314. 11006 Afr. J. Bus. Manage. orking capital (WC) can be replaced as a egregious working capital of the firm. By subtracting Current Liabi-lities from Current Assets it becomes Net operative crownwork. Net working capital (NWC) can also be apply to measure the liquidity but it is not useful when firms are compared with individually other regarding performance, but useful in measuring the internal check of the firm. The interlock working capital helps to c ompare the liquidity of previous come in of the firm performance. The main answer of the working capital management (WCM) is to assume the sustainable level of the working capital (WC) which is favorable for the firm.Net working capital (NWC) is the part of the menstruums assets which is main-tained through funds having maturity life more than one year. Current assets represent the source of short terms funds. If the firm has less short term funds therefore it is supported by long term funds and sustains the firm value and market share price. This is very useful for the ana-lysis of trade between profitability and risk in the shares of the firm. verificatory working capital (PWC) and Negative operative with child(p) (NWC) are the two practicable signs. Positive working capital (PWC) is the sign of firm healthiness.Positive working capital (PWC) means that firm have the ability to pay the liabilities which maturity date are less than one year of the firm on due date. Positi ve working capital (PWC) is calculated by study Current Assets (CA) by menstruum liabilities (CL). Negative Working capital is the sign of firm weakness. Negative working capital means that ships company does not have the ability to pay the short term liabilities. When the Working working capital (WC) shows controvert sign, it indicates long term funds support the short term funds and firm can easily pay the obligations on due date and save the value or worth of firm in the market.But in the variant expression, firm declining means bankruptcy. If declining working capital proportion continues for longer breaker point then it can affect the firm value. If the firm skill is more in the feat, the more increase in working capital (WC). It can be analyzed by comparing the opeproportionn of working capital (WC) periodically. Working capital is raised from profits or outsourcing. Outsourcing means when there are more sales in the mollify but the firm is not able to invest and pr oduce more products.From outsourcing, more liabilities arise but on the other way from investiture more, revenue will generate from more sales and it will increase the assets of the firm. Working Capital direction (WCM) has its impact on profitability as well as liquidity of the company and the primary design of a company is to increase the annual revenues. Keeping the company liquid is an passing main task also. Increase in company profitabiliy by lessen the liquidity of the company can bring some serious problems for it. Goals cannot be ignored at any cost because from each one individual goal has its own importance. If goal of maximizing the profit is gnored, survival is not possible for a longer time. Similarly, if liquidity objective is ignored, insolvency or bankruptcy could be faced. Because of these bases, proper attention should be given to Working Capital Management (WCM) which affects the companies profits and through this, it will show the effect of the Working Cap ital (WC) on profitability (PRT). The research problem of this study is does working capital have significant impact on profitability of a company? The objective of this reseach is to find out the correlation between working capital and profitability (PRT) through statistical compendium of a sample of listed companies.The purpose of this research is to analyze the impact of traditional working capital policies (WCP) on the profitability (PRT) of the firms, to analyze whether Working Capital Policies (WCP) can become inactive over a long run-up and to draw a shutting about the impact of working capital on the profitability of companies. literary productions REVIEW A significant portion of financial research is have-to doe with with the Management of working capital (MWC). This issue has been investigated at both notional and empirical levels. Different researchers have worked on working capital from different perspectives and in different economic environment.The environments a nd perspectives are discussed in detail in this work. This paper is conducted for the association between working capital (WC) and value asylum for shareholders. Working capital has trey parts. scratch line, account receivable second, account payable and third, inventory. Account receivable is a part of balance sheet, placed in the Asset Side (AS) and it is the inflows of firm. Account receivable is maintained when a company narks sales on credit bases. Account payable is also the part of the balance sheet, placed on the liabilities side and also the outflows of the firm.Account payable is maintained when a company do sum expenditures on the credit bases and make a payment on different terms. Inventory is maintained for generating the revenues from sales. The standardized measure for working capital management (WCM) is cash conversion cycle (CCC). Cash conversion period reflects the time span between disbursal and collection of cash. Cash Conversion Cycle (CCC) is based on t hree components return of days of account receivable, number of day of accounts payable and number of day of inventory. It is measured by the sum of inventory conversion period less payable conversion period.Different researchers use the name like net trade cycle for calculating the Working Capital Management (WCM). In this, every component is calculated in percenttage of sales (Soenen, 1998). Qazi et al. 11007 In Marcs view most firms invest cash in working capital (WC) and it shows that the management of Working Capital leaves good impression on the advantageousness of firms. Similarly, firms Working Capital Management (WCM) is a major part of financial positions. It helps the firms in maximizing their wealth and value of the shares. bigger inventory and trade policy can make higher sales for the firm.Large inventory reduces the risk of stock out for fulfilling the demand of the public. By providing credit sales to the customers, suppliers have significant cost advantage over fi nancial institution (Deloof, 2002). Different researchers have different views that they test on the working capital. There is a irresponsible correlation between account receivable and operating income of firm. Because if the good provided on credit bases then the days of the accounts receivable will not be for long period. On the basis of the accounts receivable, firms running their operations can meet the payment on due date.Efficient liquidity management (ELM) is a process which includes planning and controlling of current assets (CA) and current liabilities (CL). Liquidity and profitability of firm have great relation with each other. This kind can be analyzed by current ratio (CR) and cash gap (CG) (Abdual, 2007). Firms short terms liabilities are directly think to the former while the continuity of liabilities is concerned with the latter. Higher investment barricade in stock and accounts receivable creates problem for operation. Decrease in number of days of account rece ivable gives increase in early eserves (Padachi, 2006). monetary managers can gain profit by maintaining component of cash conversion cycle (CCC) at a higher level (Nazir and Afza, 2009). If the inventory gets to the lower limit level and the number of days account receivable (NDAR) also becomes minimum, then firms can increase their profits and run their project efficiently and effectively (Abdul, 2007). The policies of working capital management can help to measure the WC. If the policies which the firm is going to implement are very strict and helpful for the firm then the firm will not bear losses or stock out or less short term assets.The backing policies mean how to allocate the revenue to different departments and after how many days the firm is going to receive their payments and ability to pay his own payments. The share value can be created by the financial managers if they efficiently manage through conservative approach (Nazir and Afza, 2009). Different researchers use different compendium models. For empirical investigation, the anova and Pearson correlation analysis is apply. From these models, firm size and cash cycle can be measured easily.It is easy to measure the readiness of working capital management (WCM), performance evaluation and the whole efficacy of the firm by setting up their targets. For calculating the overall efficiency of the firm, the target has to be achieved in limited time period. Researchers use pooled selective information for the analysis. In the pooled data, different independent variables such as regress accede with the dependent variable (Zariyawati, 2009). The financial leverage and growth in sales are the major factor of firm profitability. Firms have to select the beaver policy to improve their collection and payment period.Efficient management financing of working capital can increase their operational profitability (Abdul, 2010). After perusal the above articles, it is seen that the results of all researc hers are the same on working capital management (WCM) and profitability (PRT) regardless of different companies, environments and situations. METHODOLOGY This research is to analyze the impact of working capital (WC) on the profitability (PRT) of oil and splatter and automobile industry with reference to Pakistan. Different statistical tools are applied to analyze the significance of the variables. So, the method of coefficient of correlation has been selected.Regression analysis is applied for interrogatory the model reliability and significant relationship between variables. Data set and sample Two sectors are selected from Karachi Stock Exchange. The first is oil and gas and the second is automobile sector. A total of 20 companies are taken as sample for the data collection, which are smooth from different sources. They are taken from 2004 2009 from the annual report. Some data are collected from the show Bank of Pakistan (SBP). State Bank of Pakistan (SBP) provides an analy sis report of different sectors and companies which were listed in Karachi Stock Exchange (KSE).In this study, different variables are taken to measure the working capital (WC). Working Capital is taken as independent variable (WC) while profitability is taken as dependent variable (PRT). In this case, profit after tax is taken as profitability of firms. Working Capital can be measured by different ways. First is net working capital (NWC), which is measured by current assets (CA), divided by current liabilities (CL). Second is inventory turnover in days (ITID), which is calculated by inventory divided by Cost of Goods exchange (CGS) and multiplied by 365.Third is number of day of accounts receivable (AAR), which is calculated by other current assets divided by sale and multiplied by 365. Forth is financial asset to total assets (FATA), which is calculated by adding cash and investment and the whole divided by total assets. In addition, current ratio (CR), debt to lawfulness ratio (DER) and sales natural logarithm (LOS) are taken as control variable in this analysis. All the said(prenominal) variables are affecting the Working Capital, Working Capital Management (WCM) and it will have negative or positive impact on the profitability of the firms.Hypotheses testing The objective of this research is to examine the impact of Working Capital (WC) on the profitability of firms. Figure 1 shows the impact 11008 Afr. J. Bus. Manage. Figure 1. involve of Working Capital on serviceability. of working capital on profitability H1 Working capital has positive effect on the profitability of firms. H0 Working capital has no positive effect on the profitability of firms. good example specification In this study, panel data degeneration analysis and time series of data are taken. For the regression analysis, pooled data are used.In this pooled data, all variables are combined on the same level and selected variables are class as independent and dependent variables. Aft er that, all variables are selected for regression and correlation analysis. Model equation PRT it = ? 0 + ? 1 (AAR it) + ? 2 (ITID it) + ? 3 (CR it) + ? 4 (DER it) + ? 5 (LOS it) + ? 6 (FATA it) + ? 7 (NWC it) + ? PRTi t = Net Profit t i = 1- 20 firms. ?0 Beta ? i Coefficients X it X it Independent variables i at time t t Time = 1-5 years. ? The error term Whereas, AAR = Average Account Receivable ITID = Inventory Turnover in Days CR = Current symmetry LOS = gross sales logarithmFATA = Financial Assets to Total Assets NWC = Net Working Capital DER = Debt Equity Ratio Qualitative analyses In this paper, two analyses are applied. First, correlation and statistical tools are applied in these data. We select person correlation model for this study to find out the degree of correlation among dependent and independent variables. In the regression analysis, we gather the data from annual reports and turn it to the same level. This throng of data is called pooled data. For this analysi s, we select E-views software to analyze it correctly in the case of pooled data.DATA ANALYSIS AND REGRESSION RESULTS The correlation and determination coefficients are the measures of the regression model. First, correlation coefficient (49. 95%) and the determination coefficient (26. 12%) show the degree of correlation among working capital and profitability of selected firms from oil and gas and automobile sector over 2004 2009. The standard error value is 6. 5926 and F-statistics value is 5. 4213 which is significant at 1% and shows 100% fitness of the model (Table 1). Similarly, the Durbin-Watson statistics is 1. 9991 which clearly defines that there is no attendant correlation in this regression model.Table 2 shows the estimation results of the six antecedents for the independent variable of working capital at Qazi et al. 11009 Table 1. Model summary. R R2 Adjusted R-squared Standard Error of Estimate Durbin-Watson statistics F statistics 0. 499599 0. 261211 0. 213029 6. 592 679 1. 991426 5. 421362 Table 2. regard results. Variable NWC NDAR ITID FATA DER CR Means 23. 58595 129. 4913 75. 80012 0. 217936 17. 96434 18. 85266 SD 8. 415465 351. 7532 143. 2339 0. 191679 3. 368055 0. 597391 T stats 4. 520358 0. 254527 0. 937944 -0. 477942 -0. 554939 0. 096545 Remarks Sig non Sig Not Sig Not Sig Not Sig Not Sig Table 3.Correlation matrix. PROFIT NWC NDAR ITID FATA DER CR PROFIT 1. 000000 0. 474400 0. 109619 0. 112621 -0. 124623 -0. 201328 -0. 217375 NWC 1. 000000 -0. 086246 -0. 125120 -0. 054646 -0. 308676 -0. 397314 NDAR IITD FATA DER CR 1. 000000 0. 748882 -0. 190807 -0. 095937 -0. 040053 1. 000000 -0. 311687 0. 061122 -0. 118921 1. 000000 0. 078238 0. 396036 1. 000000 0. 008978 1. 000000 1% significance level. The results show that Net Working Capital (NWC) has positive and significant impact on the favourableness (PRT) of firms and the rest of the variables explain the sort of profitability but have no significant impact on profitability.In the correlati on results shown in Table 3, networking capital has strong positive relationship with profitability of firms while number of days of account receivable (NDAR) and Inventory turnover in days (ITD) are positive but have weak correlation power with profitability of firms financial assets to total assets (FATA), debt equity ratio (DER) and current ratio (CR) are weak and negatively agree with the Profitability (PRT) of the firms.But the correlation results of independent variables somehow showed positive and strong correlation of inventory turnover in days (ITD) with number of days account receivable (NDAR) and a strong but negative correlation of current ratio with net working capital the remaining variables correlate but are weak in both the positive and negative sense, thus the concept of colinearity does not exist among the variables as evident by the analysis results. Conclusion This study is the relationship of working capital (WC) and profitability (PRT) of firms. orking capital (WC) is the major portion of the balance sheet. In this paper, data are collected form Annual Reports (AR) and analysis report which is provided from the State Bank of Pakistan (SBP). In this analysis report, the companies which are listed in stock exchange are analyzed and summarized. In this research, oil and gas and automobile sectors are taken 11010 Afr. J. Bus. Manage. as sample. Data are taken from 2004 2009. In this research, R shows the fitness of model which is 49. 95%. The independent variables explain 49. 95% of the model.In the regression results, only net working capital is positive and significant and Number of Days of Account Receivable (NDAR) and Inventory Turnover in Days (ITD) are positive but insignificant and all other independent variables are negative and insignificant. In the correlation results, networking capital is positively correlated with profitability of the firms. The other two variables are weakly correlated with the profitability of firms and the o ther three independent variables are negatively correlated with profitability of firms.Hence, the empirical results of the paper show the positive trend of working capital on profitability of the firms. The results are supported by previous studies of Rahman (2007) and Nazir and Afza (2009) and Deloof (2002) on the Working Capital (WC). REFERENCES Abdual RMN (2007). Working Capital Management And Profitability Case Of. Int. Rev. Bus. Res. Papers, pp. 279-300. Abdul RMN (2007). Working Capital Management And Profitability Case Of Pakistani Firms. Int. Rev. Bus. Res. Papers, pp. 79-300. Abdul RTA (2010). Working Capital Management and Corporate public presentation of Manufacturing Sector in Pakistan. Int. Res. J. Finan. Econ. , 47 152. Buchmann P, Jung U (2008). Best-practice working capital management Techniques for optimizing inventories, receivables, and payables. Q. Financ. , pp. 1-7. Deloof M (2002). Does Working Capital Management actuate Profitability of Belgian Firms? inve stopedia. com. (2010). Working capital definations negative working capital, positive working capital.Retrieved October 10, 2010, from www. investopedia. com http//www. investopedia. com/terms/w/workingcapital. asp. Nazir S, Afza T (2009). Impact of Aggressive Working Capital Management Policy on Firms Profitability. J. Applied Manage . Padachi K (2006). Trends in Working Capital Management and its Impact on Firms Performance An Analysis of Mauritian Small Manufacturing Firms. Int. Rev. Bus. Res. Papers, pp. 45 -58. Shin HH, Soenen L (1998). readiness of working capital management and corporeal profitability.Financ. Pract. Educ. , pp. 37-45. Smith K (1980). Profitability versus liquidity tradeoffs in working capital management, in readings on the management of working capital. ST. Pual,New York West Publishing Company. Soenen S (1998). Liquidity management, operating performance, and corporate value evidence from Japan and Taiwan. J Multi. Manage. , 159-169. Zariyawati MN (2009). Working capital management and corporate performanceCase of Malaysia. J. Modern Account. Audit. , 5(11) 4754.

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